About IKMASWP

The IKMAS Working Paper Series presents papers in a preliminary form that have been presented at the IKMAS Seminars or Conferences, and serves to stimulate comments and discussions. The current working paper series replaces its predecessor under the same title which ceased publication some years ago. The views expressed in this publication series are entirely those of the author(s), and do not represent the official position of IKMAS. This publication may be reproduced electronically or in print with prior written permission obtained from IKMAS and due credit given to the author(s) and IKMAS. Please emailĀ faisalhazis@ukm.edu.my for further editorial queries or submissions (Guidelines for Submission).