Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment
Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Volume 28 (2016)

Table of Contents

No. Article Page  
1. A Decade after the Tsunami: Preliminary Exploration Deposit Layer of Sediment at Coast Area of Kedah, Malaysia

Siti Habibah Shafiai, Azuraien Japper @ Jaafar, Teh Hee Min & Ahmad Hadi Mohamed Rashid

Study on tsunami deposits is done after a decade of the incident happened at Kedah, Malaysia. This article discusses the characteristics, measurement and thickness of tsunami deposits. It also provides the latest remaining evidences of the tsunami incident including imbrication pattern of cobbles, types of coastal protection and plants at the affected area. Run-up heights and inundation distance were taken into account for field exploration and investigation. This study may provide opportunities to understand how remaining evidences of tsunami could be tracked and recorded.

Keywords:  Tsunami; paleo-tsunami; sediment deposit; coastal plants

2. The Study of Polymer Material Characterisation Using M-Z-N Statistical Analysis Method

Muhamad Arif Fadli Ahmad, Mohd Zaki Nuawi, Nadia F. Mohamed, Zaliha Wahid & M. Dirhamsyah

This paper proposes an implementation of alternative statistical signal analysis method in characterising material properties of polymer using impulse excitation technique (IET) in accordance with ASTM E1876 standard. Five types of cylindrical shape polymer specimens are used, namely acrylics (AC), poly vinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE), cast nylon (MC), and polyoxymethylene (POM). Experimental procedure is done based on non-destructive testing (NDT) concept by tapping the specimens using an impact hammer within a specific range of impact force, while accelerometer sensor Endevco 751-100 is used to detect the vibration produced. The detected vibration and the impact force signal which is triggered by impact hammer are captured using NI 9234 data acquisition device and computer. The signal is interpreted and statistically analysed using Mesokurtosis Zonal Non-parametric (M-Z-N) analysis method. As a result, mathematical model equations for determining two material properties which are tensile strength and thermal conductivity have been successfully developed. They are derived through correlation between the signal data and M-Z-N coefficient. Verification of the equation is done and the calculated errors to be in the range of 5.55% to 9.74%. Hence, this proves that the correlation can be used as a standard for determining these material properties through M-Z-N method, which is efficient and low cost.

Keywords: M-Z-N; impulse excitation technique; non-destructive testing; material characterisation; vibration signal

3. Behavioral Analysis of Thermoelectric Module under Different Configurations and Temperature Gradient

R. Mohamed, A. M. Yusop, A. Mohamed & N. I. Nordin

This study analyzes the behavior of the thermoelectric module (TEM) in a transient status which allows natural cooling condition. The analysis mainly aims to extract energy from the ordinary heat source and convert it into useful electrical power. Several TEM configurations which involve single TEM and multi stage TEM are manipulated within the system since the previous studies only focused on single TEM behavior only. For a complete TEM behavioral analysis results, the performance of multistage TEM must be taken into account as this type of configurations is usually used in high-end TEM application to produce greater voltage value. A multistage TEM that is connected electrically in series and thermally in parallel produces a higher generated voltage value compared to a single TEM. TEM temperature gradients also are changed throughout the experiment to examine how this term affects the TEM behavior. The results show that the multistage TEM contributes the highest output voltage and it depends on the number of cascaded TEM. Furthermore, a higher temperature gradient contributes to more voltage generated by the TEM. TEM analysis with heatsink is proved to have larger temperature gradient to maintain the cold side of the TEM junction. Loading effect analysis shows that the TEM system can obtain 5 V of stable voltage when the load resistor connected to the system output is 200 ohm and above.

Keywords: Thermoelectric; temperature gradient; heatsink

4. Developing and Validating a Simulation Model for Counting and Classification of Vehicles
Ali Emad Jehad & Riza Atiq bin O.K. Rahmat
An algorithm system approach has been presented for extracting traffic data using video image processing. While an offline program focuses on extracting vehicles, tracking them and provides the vehicle count for a short period of time. It uses background subtraction, shadow removal, and pixel analysis for extracting moving objects. The results show that the algorithm is capable of counting 95% of the vehicles due to some shaking in the video feed. These data have been analyzed by statistical regression to show the credibility of the results which been approved to be useful according to the value of R Square and Significance F compared with the value of the observation method. Also, the classification of vehicles was performed using the improfile command in Matlab-Video Image Processing that computes the intensity values along a line or a multiline path in an image. The algorithm program was developed to detect vehicles in traffic videos and get the vehicle count for the small time period as an assistance tool for a researcher who seeks vehicle counting.
Keywords: Video image processing; algorithm system; Matlab; optical flow model; vehicles classification
5. Strain Behaviour in Composite Plate Girders with Imperfect Shear Connection
M. Y. M. Yatim & N. E. Shanmugam
This paper is concerned with the experimental study on the behaviour of strain in steel-concrete composite plate girders having imperfect shear connection. A number of slender girders of practical size were loaded to failure under shear applied at the mid-span. The main variables considered in this study are the longitudinal spacing of stud connector, diameter of stud shank, number of studs along the upper flange and concrete strength. Strains were measured extensively at specified load levels and locations across the concrete slab width and across the whole depth of the girder. The test results have shown variations of strain from girder to girder due to effects of reaction at supports, compression and tension parts of the girders as well as imperfection in the shear connection. Strains across the slab width show arbitrary respond with maximum tension and compression values of 4284𝜇𝜀 and 4622𝜇𝜀, respectively. Across the girder depth, girders with low degree of shear connection display high step change to the extent of 736𝜇𝜀 due to incompatibility between two strains at the interface. Slip strain is found maximum near the mid-span of the girders in all cases.Keywords: Composite plate girder; partial interaction; strain; behaviour
6. Kajian Hubung kait Tekanan dan Suhu Terhadap Taburan Kerpasan di Malaysia Ketika Fenomena ENSO

(Study on Precipitation and Its Relation to Pressure and Temperature Over Malaysia During The ENSO Phenomenon)
Shuhaina Ibrahim, Nor Shahida Sahlan & Mandeep Singh Jit Singh

Climate change is the greatest threat to the environment and human beings in the 21st century. The annual temperature of the earth has been moved up and down a few degrees Celsius over the past few million years ago. The trend of rising temperatures in many places including Malaysia from 30 to 50 years ago. This results in increased frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as droughts, storms and floods. Among the factors that affect most of the climate Malaysia is El Niño-Southern Oscillation or ENSO for short, which affects the diversity of the rain. Malaysia is one of the countries in Southeast Asia are experiencing the effects of El Niño anomalies are significant in terms of regional climate and socio-economic well-being of its people. The study used data from the rain Tropical Rain Measuring Mission Satellite (TRMM) known as Compound TRMM Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA). This data is used to monitor the condition of dry and humid in Malaysia for a period of fifteen (15) years from 2000 to 2014. From the results, it appears that in the event of a moderate La Nina phenomenon in 2008, temperatures in MAM is inversely proportional to the precipitation of most locations. Next, when weak El Nino in 2004/2005 and 2006/2007, SLP at DJF is inversely proportional to the precipitation and tnp at DJF is inversely proportional to the precipitation for most locations. Monthly TRMM rainfall data also has a good linear relationship with watershed station rainfall data. The results obtained from this project is very useful to know the precipitation trend when compared with the temperature and pressure so that we can make preparations for the government and even to individuals.

Keywords: precipitation, pressure, temperature, ENSO, TRMM, TMPA

7. Water Quality of Surface Runoff in Loop Two Catchment Area in UKM
Norshahkilla Izzatul Zaiedy, Othman A. Karim & Nurul Afina Abd Mutalib
For a country that is developing, there is a need to control and maintain the quality of raw water, with adequate quantities to ensure continuous supply of clean water. In Malaysia, urban development activities especially constructions, is believed to be one of the activities that contributes to the deterioration of the quality of surface runoff. The main objectives of this project are to investigate water quality of surface water runoff at UKM’s loop two catchment areas and to observe the effect of slope failure, erosion, and construction activities on surface water quality in UKM Bangi campus. Besides that, the development of hydraulic models using HEC-RAS software is also the objective of this research. This research is conducted through field study and laboratory works. The main findings confirmed that water quality and total surface runoff in the catchment is directly affected by slope failure, erosion, and construction activities. Results from HEC-RAS modeling revealed that the drains surrounding the lake are not overflowing or flooding.Keywords: Surface runoff; water quality; HEC-RAS modelling; UKM catchment area
8. Kesan Kepekatan Mangan Terhadap Biojerapan Mangan oleh Pencilan Bacillus Cereus Tempatan

(Effect of Initial Concentrations on Biosorption of Manganese by Locally Isolated Bacillus Cereus)
Fathiyyah Mohd Zainudin, Hassimi Abu Hasan & Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah


Problem of manganese (Mn) pollutions that found in water is highly toxic to living thing, which can cause gastro intestinal accumulation, low heamoglobin levels in blood, neurotoxicity, nausea, water appears reddish brown and also can cause of clogged pipes. Biosorption of manganese is done using difference concentration of Mn concentration which is 25, 40 and 100 mg/L. The analysis of this study were optical density (OD), pH, manganese concentrations, biomass and colony forming unit (CFU). The result shown for OD, pH and biomass increased over time reflects the growth of bacteria. Concentration of Mn decreased from 25, 40 and 100 mg/L to 10.2, 18.6 and 52.2 mg/L with the percentage removal of 55, 53 and 50 % respectively after 24-hour incubation period. Meanwhile, the uptake of Mn by B.cereus decreased as increased the initial concentrations. Therefore, increasing the initial concentrations of Mn affected the biosorption of Mn by locally isolated B.cereus.

Keywords: Bacillus cereus; water pollution; water treatment technology; manganese; biosorption

9. Evaluation on the Stability of Slope at Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment (FKAB) using Slope/w
Salmah Salween, Khairul Anuar Mohd Nayan & Mohammad Omar Faruk Murad
Slope stability topics have become one of the main issues due to the nature of topography and weather conditions in Malaysia. This study examines the stability of the slope at the Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment (FKAB) and eventually to identify the best approach for the analysis. The three main objectives of this study are to evaluate the slope of FKAB using the Limit Equilibrium method, using Slope/w to evaluate the critical soil parameters obtain through back analysis, and eventually to obtain the best method to be use for further analysis on the stability of slope. The steps involve in solving the model of the slope were drawn, defined and assigned accordingly before the final analysis is being carried out in accordance to the methodology of the Slope/w 2007 software. The minimum Factor of Safety (FOS) obtained from the analysis using the unsaturated soil model were found to be 0.999, 1.001 and 1.002 from the Janbu Method, Ordinary Method, Bishop Method and Sarma Method respectively. These Factor of Safety (FOS) were obtained by using back analysis of a two layered model. Layer 1 with soil parameters of 18 kN/m³ of unit weight, 90 kPa of cohesion and 20° of angle of friction were assigned. Correspondingly for layer 2, the values of 15 kN/m³ unit weight above the groundwater table and 18 kN/m³ below groundwater table, 3 kPa of cohesion and 8° of angle of friction were assigned. In this study, the Sarma Method was found to be the best method as it satisfies both force and moment equilibrium and is recommended for further analysis to be taken at the slope.Keywords: Slope stability; back analysis; factor of safety; unsaturated soil
10. Vibration Based Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting Utilizing Bridgeless Rectifier Circuit
Mahidur R. Sarker, Azah Mohamed & Ramizi Mohamed
The energy harvesting technique has the capability to build autonomous, self-powered electronic systems that does not depend on the battery power for driving the low power electronics devices. In this paper, a voltage doubler and bridgeless boost rectifier power electronic converter is proposed to increase the energy harvesting output voltage from piezoelectric vibration based transducer. The conventional full-wave diode bridge rectifier and boost converter for energy harvesting system increases significant voltage drop and power losses in the circuit. However, the proposed voltage doubler and bridgeless boost rectifier circuit reduce the voltage drop and power loses in the circuit and thus increases the efficiency of the circuit. The proposed voltage doubler and bridgeless boost rectifier circuit step-up the output voltage up to 3 V DC from an input voltage of 1.9 V AC.Keywords: Energy harvesting; rectifier-less converter; low-voltage; piezoelectric; voltage doubler
11. Kesan Ketidakseragaman Sedimen Dasar ke Atas Kerokan Tempatan di Sekitar Tiang Bersilinder

(The Effect of Non-Homogeneous Sediment Bed on Local Scour Around Cylindrical Pier)
Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar, Muhd Aminurlah Amin & Mohamad Rafi Abdul Shukor

Studies of local scour around bridge commonly employed homogenous non-cohesive sediment as their simplified sediment parameters. However, sediment in real water stream is non-homogeneous with varying grain size distribution. This study investigates the local scour behaviour for two non-homogeneous, non-cohesive sediment with gradation parameter σ_g 1.5 and 2.25. Laboratory experiments were conducted using cylindrical piers with varying sizes of 2.5, 3.5, 5 and 6 cm. Measurement of maximum scour depth, transverse and longitudinal scour lengths were measured using Vernier scale after each test. The scour depth and lengths were consistently increased as the pier size increased for both types of sediment. Increment of the longitudinal and transverse scour lengths were found to be exponential when the pier size was increased from 3.5 cm to 5 cm. The effect of non-homogeneity of sediment characteristics were clearly affected the local scour behaviour where the scour depth and lengths for sediment with higher gradation parameter were much lower. Futhermore, the obtained scour characteristics were significantly underestimated when compared with values predicted with the empirical equation. This indicate that the armouring effect has taken place, where the coarser sediment protects the finer sediment from being entrained. Consequently, the level of scouring is much less than what is anticipated and posed a possibility of bridge overdesign.

Keywords: Local scour; non-homogeneous sediment; cylindrical piers

12. Dish Concentrator Performance Based on Various Materials for Hot Humid Weather
M. A. Mat Nong, N.M. Adam, A.R. Suraya, J. M Yusof and R.A. Rashid
In this paper, three solar dish systems with different reflector materials were experimentally studied for five months. The size each of the solar dish is 32 cm in diameter and 5 cm in depth. The focal length of the dish concentrator was 12.8 cm. The solar dishes were made from aluminum, aluminum covered with chrome and ABS canister covered with 3M aluminum foil on its surface. Experimental measurement for total heat flux showed that 3M aluminum foil is higher than aluminum and chrome. The experimental results indicate that the total efficiency of the system is up to 49.7%.Keyword: solar dish, reflector, solar energy, focal point