Sains Malaysiana 38(2): 143-147(2009)


DNA Polymorphism of D1S80 Locus in Modern Malay

Sample Population of Sarawak

(DNA Polimorfisma di Lokus DIS80 dalam Sampel Populasi

Melayu Moden Sarawak)


Hairul Azman Roslan, Nur Hafizah Azizan & Rosmawati Saat

Department of Molecular Biology, Faculty of Resource Science and Technology,

Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, 94300 Kota Samarahan, Sarawak, Malaysia

Received:  11 July  2007 / Accepted: 25 June 2008




The molecular genetic marker, minisatellite locus D1S80 (1p35-p36), is a highly polymorphic variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR). Its polymorphic nature allows for phylogenetic studies, forensic analysis, genetic maps construction and paternity testing to be performed. A study of the hypervariable locus D1S80 was conducted to determine the allele frequency and distribution of this locus in modern Malay in Sarawak population. The polymerase chain reaction technique was employed and results were analysed on polyacrylamide gel. A total of seventy-six DNA samples of unrelated Malay individuals in UNIMAS were collected and examined. The VNTR analysis of the D1S80 locus demonstrated the presence of 17 alleles in the Malay population. Allele with the size of 577 bp (27 repeats) was determined to be the most common in the sample population with the frequency of 0.1641, followed by allele with the size of 561 bp (26 repeats) and 529 bp (24 repeats) whose frequency is 0.1172 and 0.1094, respectively. The smallest allele is allele with the size of 465 bp (20 repeats) whereas the largest is allele with the size of 753 bp (38 repeats). The sample population exhibited 57.8% heterozygosity.


Keywords: D1S80 locus; modern Malay population; polymorphism; population genetic; Variable number of tandem repeats(VNTR)





Penanda genetik molekul, lokus minisatelit D1S80 (1p35-p36), adalah lokus “VNTR” yang tinggi kepelbagaian rupa bentuknya. Sifat kepelbagaian bentuk ini membolehkan kajian filogenetik, analisis forensik, peta genetik dan kajian penentuan ibu bapa dijalankan. Satu kajian dalam lokus D1S80 telah dijalankan untuk menentukan frekuensi dan distribusi lokus ini populasi Melayu moden di Sarawak. Kajian telah menggunakan teknik amplifikasi rantai polimeras (PCR) dan elektroporesis gel menggunakan media poliakrilamid. Sejumlah 76 sampel DNA dari individu Melayu dalam populasi UNIMAS yang tiada hubungan saudara telah di ambil dan dikaji. Keputusan menunjukkan 17 alel diperoleh dari populasi ini. Alel bersaiz 577 bp (27 ulangan) ialah alel yang biasa dijumpai dengan frekuensi 0.1641 dan diikuti dengan alel bersaiz 561 bp (26 ulangan) and 529 bp (24 ulangan) dengan frekuensi masing-masing 0.1172 dan 0.1094. Alel terkecil yang dijumpai ialah alel bersaiz 465 bp (20 ulangan) manakala alel yang terbesar ialah alel bersaiz 753 bp (38 ulangan). Populasi ini menunjukkan 56.9% individu heterozigot.


Kata kunci: Genetik populasi; kepelbagaian rupa bentuk; Lokus D1S80; populasi Melayu moden; VNTR





Anderson , J.F., Greenhalgh, M.J., Butler , H.R., Kilpatrick, S.R., Piercy, R.C., Way, K.A., Myhill, H.S., Wright, J.C., Hallett, R. & Parkin, B.H. 1996. Further Validation of Multiplex STR System for Use in Routine Forensic Identity Testing. Forensic Science International 78:47–64.

Ariffin, S.H.Z., Wahab, R.M.A., Zamrod, Z., Sahar, S., Razak, M.F.A., Ariffin, E.J. & Senafi, S. 2007. Molecular Archeology of Ancient Bone from 400 Year Old Shipwreck. Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology 15:1 27-31

Bloom, M.V., Freyer, G. A. & Micklos, D.A. 1996. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, New York . The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Company, Inc.

Das, B. & Seshadri, M. 2003. DNA Polymorphism Study at D1S80, DYS19, DYS287 and DYF155S2 in Two Tribal Populations from Central India [Electronic version]. Journal of Forensic Sciences 48:5.

Hatzaki, A., Loukopoulos, D., Spiliopoulou, H. & Koutselinis, A. 1995. A Study of Five Variable Number Tandem repeat (VNTR) loci in the Greek population. Molecular and Cellular Probes 9:129-133.

Helminen, P., Sajantila, A., Johnsson, V., Lukka, M., Ehnholm, C. & Peltonen, L. 1992.  Amplification of Three Hypervariable DNA Regions by Polymerase Chain Reaction for Paternity Determinations Comparison with Conventional Methods and DNA Fingerprinting. Molecular Cell Probes 6:21–26.

Hoong, L.L. & Lek, K.C. 2005. Genetic Polymorphisms in Mitochondrial DNA Hypervariable Regions I, II and III of the Malaysian population. Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology 13:2 79-85.

Jeffreys, A., Wilson , V. & Thein, S.L. 1985. Hypervariable Minisatellite Region in Human DNA. Nature. 314:67-73.

Kasai , K., Nakamura, Y. & White, R. 1990. Amplification of a Variable Number of Tandem Repeat (VNTR) Locus (pMCT 118) by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and its Application to Forensic Science. Journal of Forensic Science International 35:1196-1200.

Katsuyama, Y., Inokob, H., Imanishic, T., Mizukib, N., Gojoboric, T. & Otaa, M. 1998. Genetic Relationships among Japanese, Northern Han, Hui, Uygur, Kazakh, Greek, Saudi Arabian, and Italian Populations Based on Allelic Frequencies at Four VNTR (D1S80, D4S43, COL2A1, D17S5) and One STR (ACTBP2) Loci. Human Heredity 48:126–137.

Ricaut, F.X., Bellatti, M. & Lahr, M.M. 2006. Ancient Mitochondrial DNA from Malaysian Hair Samples: Some Indications of Southeast Asian Population Movements. American Journal of Human Biology 18:5 654-667.

Richards, B., Skoletsky, J., Shuber, P. A., Balfour, R., Stern, R. C., Dorkin, H. L., Parad, R. B., Witt, D. & Klinger, K. W. 1993. Multiplex PCR Amplification for the CRFT Gene Using DNA Prepared for Buccal Brushes/Swab. Journal of Human Molecular Genetics 2:159-163.

Roy, R. 1997. Infrared Fluorescent Detection of D1S80 Alleles. Journal of Forensic Science International 87:63-71.

Seng, K.C., Gin, G.G., Sangkar, J.V. & Phipps , M.E. 2003. Frequency of Cytochrome P450 2C9 (CYP2C9) Alleles in Three Ethnic Groups in Malaysia . Asia Pacific Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. 11(2):83-91

Tamaki, K. & Jeffreys, A. J. 2005. Human Tandem Repeat Sequences in Forensic DNA Typing. Journal of Legal Medicine 7: 244-250.

Turowska, B. & Sanak, M. 1995. D1S80 VNTR Locus Genotypes in Population of South Poland ;  Meta-analysis Pointer to Genetic Disequilibrium of Human Populations. Journal of Forensic Science International 75:207-216.

Vallinoto, I. M. V. C., Vallinoto, A. C. R., Cristina Maria Duarte Valente C. M. D. & Guerreiro J. F. 2003. Allele Frequency Distributions of 6 Hypervariable Loci (D1S80, APOB, D4S43, vW1, F13A & DYS19) in Two African-Brazilian Communities from the Amazon Region. Journal of Genetics and Molecular Biology 26:235-240.

Winter, P.C., Hickey, G.I. & Fletcher, H.L. 2003. Instant Notes in Genetics (2nd edit). Oxford . Bios Scientific Publishers Ltd.

Yang, Y. S., Wong, L. P., Lee, T. C., Mustafa, A. M., Mohamed, Z. & Lang C. 2004. Genetic polymorphism of cytochrome P450 2C19 in healthy Malaysian subjects. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 58:3 332-335

Yeh, F. C. & Boyle, T. J. B. 1997. Population Genetic Analysis of Co-Dominant and Dominant Markers and Quantitative Traits. Belgian Journal of Botany 129:157.

Zainuddin, Z., Teh, L.K., Suhaimi, A.W.M. & Ismail, R. 2006. Malaysian Indians are Genetically Similar to Caucasians: CYP2C9 polymorphism. Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics 31:2 187-191.