Sains Malaysiana 43(10)(2014): 1461–1470


Deforestation, Forest Degradation and Readiness of Local People of Lubuk Antu,

Sarawak for REDD+

(Penyahhutanan, Degradasi Hutan dan Kesediaan Penduduk Tempatan dari Lubuk Antu, Sarawak bagi REDD+)



1School of International Tropical Forestry, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia


2Forestry Department of Sarawak, Level 5, Wisma Sumber Alam, 92660 Kuching, Sarawak, Malaysia


3School of Social Science, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, 88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah



4Graduate School of Agricultural and Life Sciences, The University of Tokyo

1-1-1 Yayoi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8657, Japan



Received: 26 April 2013/Accepted: 23 February 2014



Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation-plus (REDD+) is considered as an important mitigation strategy against global warming. However, the implementation of REDD+ can adversely affect local people who have been practicing shifting cultivation for generations. We analyzed Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper images of 1990 and 2009 to quantifying deforestation and forest degradation at Lubuk Antu District, a typical rural area of Sarawak, Malaysia. The results showed significant loss of intact forest at 0.9% per year, which was substantially higher than the rate of Sarawak. There were increases of oil palm and rubber areas but degraded forest, the second largest land cover type, had increased considerably. The local people were mostly shifting cultivators, who indicated readiness of accepting the REDD+ mechanism if they were given compensation. We estimated the monthly willingness to accept (WTA) at RM462, which can be considered as the opportunity cost of foregoing their existing shifting cultivation. The monthly WTA was well correlated with their monthly household expenses. Instead of cash payment, rubber cultivation scheme was the most preferred form of compensation.


Keywords: Deforestation; forest degradation; REDD+; shifting cultivation; willingness to accept



Pengurangan pelepasan daripada penyahhutanan dan degradasi hutan-plus (REDD+) dianggap sebagai strategi mitigasi penting dalam menangani pemanasan global. Walau bagaimanapun, pelaksanaan REDD+ boleh menjejaskan penduduk tempatan yang telah lama mengamalkan pertanian pindah. Kami telah menganalisis imej Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper bagi tahun 1990 dan 2009 untuk mengukur kadar penyahhutanan dan degradasi hutan di daerah Lubuk Antu, yang terletak di kawasan luar Bandar Sarawak, Malaysia. Hasil kajian menunjukkan kadar penyahhutanan yang ketara pada tahap 0.9% setahun, kadar yang jauh lebih tinggi berbanding dengan kadar keseluruhan Sarawak. Terdapat juga peningkatan keluasan ladang kelapa sawit dan getah tetapi peningkatan keluasan yang ketara bagi hutan degredasi, jenis litupan tanah kedua terbesar. Penduduk tempatan yang kebanyakannya mengamalkan pertanian pindah bersedia menerima mekanisme REDD+ jika mereka diberi pampasan. Kami telah menganggarkan kesediaan untuk menerima (WTA) pampasan bulanan sebanyak RM462, yang boleh dianggap sebagai kos bagi melepaskan amalan pertanian pindah. WTA bulanan didapati berkait rapat dengan perbelanjaan bulanan isi rumah. Kebanyakan penduduk tempatan memilih pampasan berbentuk skim penanaman getah daripada opsyen lain termasuklah bayaran tunai.


Kata kunci: Degradasi hutan; kesediaan untuk menerima; penyahhutanan; pertanian pindah; REDD+


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