Sains Malaysiana 43(3)(2014): 399–405


High Potential of Poultry by-product Meal as a Main Protein Source in the Formulated Feeds for a Commonly Cultured Grouper in Malaysia (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus)

(Potensi Tinggi Tepung Hasil Sampingan Ayam sebagai Sumber Utama Protein dalam Makanan Rumusan untuk Ikan Kerapu yang Biasa Diternak di Malaysia (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus))




Borneo Marine Research Institute, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS

88400 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia


Received: 18 February 2013/Accepted: 1 July 2013



A trial was carried out to evaluate the possibility of replacing fish meal with poultry by-product meal (PBM) at high inclusion levels (50-100%) in the formulated feeds of tiger grouper, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Fish meal-based feed (PBM0) served as the control feed and three PBM-based feeds with inclusion levels of 50 (PBM50), 75 (PBM75), and 100% (PBM100) were fed to triplicate groups of fish with mean body weight of 26.2±0.2 g. All formulated feeds were isoproteic (50%) and isolipidic (13%). Weight gain of juveniles ranged from 233 to 338% at the end of feeding trial. Final weight (g), weight gain (%) and specific growth rate (% day-1) of fish fed PBM0 were lower than other fish groups. The feed conversion ratio ranged from 1.1 (PBM50) to 2.0 (PBM0) with no significant difference detected in all treatments. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) were influenced by the inclusion of PBM in the feeds, with PBM50 recording better values in all measured ADCs. Meanwhile, replacement of fish meal with PBM has little influence on the whole body proximate compositions and body indices. The present study shows that PBM is an excellent alternative protein source for farming the tiger grouper juveniles with fish meal protein replacement level of 50% resulted in the best overall performances.


Keywords: Alternative ingredients; Epinephelus fuscoguttatus; fish meal replacement; marine fish farming; poultry by-product meal; tiger grouper



Satu kajian telah dijalankan untuk menilai kemungkinan mengganti tepung ikan dengan tepung hasil sampingan ayam (PBM) pada tahap penggantian yang tinggi (50-100%) di dalam makanan kerapu, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus. Makanan berasaskan tepung ikan (PBM0) bertindak sebagai makanan kawalan dan tiga makanan berasaskan PBM dengan kadar penambahan 50 (PBM50), 75 (PBM75) dan 100% (PBM100) diberi makan kepada kumpulan triplikat ikan yang mempunyai berat badan purata 26.2±0.2 g. Kesemua diet berformulasi mengandungi protein (50%) dan lipid (13%) yang sama. Pertambahan berat juvenil menjulat antara 233 to 338% pada akhir percubaan. Berat akhir (g), pertambahan berat (%) dan kadar pertumbuhan spesifik (% hari-1) ikan yang diberi makan PBM0 adalah lebih rendah daripada kumpulan lain. Kadar penukaran makanan menjulat dari 1.1 (PBM50) hingga 2.0 (PBM0) dengan tiada perbezaan bererti di antara semua rawatan. Koefisyen penghadaman ketara (ADCs) dipengaruhi oleh penambahan PBM dalam diet, dengan PBM50 memberikan nilai yang lebih baik bagi semua ADC yang diukur. Manakala penggantian tepung ikan dengan PBM tidak memberikan kesan yang besar terhadap kandungan proksimat dan indeks badan. Kajian ini menunjukkan PBM adalah sumber protein alternatif yang cemerlang untuk penternakan juvenil kerapu harimau dengan penggantian protein tepung ikan pada kadar 50% memberikan hasil keseluruhan yang terbaik.


Kata kunci: Epinephelus fuscoguttatus; kerapu harimau; penggantian protein; penternakan ikan marin; ramuan alternatif; tepung hasil sampingan ayam


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