Sains Malaysiana 45(10)(2016): 1435–1442


Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Defatted Seeds of Jatropha curcas

(Penilaian Fitokimia dan Biologi Biji Jatropha curcas Nyahlemak)




1Department of Botany, University of Science and Technology, Bannu KP, Pakistan


2Department of Biotechnology, University of Science and Technology, Bannu KP, Pakistan


Received: 14 November 2015/Accepted: 17 February 2016



In this study, the antimicrobial, antioxidant, phytotoxic and phytochemical properties of defatted seeds of Jatropha curcas were evaluated. A crude methanolic extract of defatted seeds was tested against three fungal strains - Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus - and five bacteria: Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae (Gram negative) and Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positive). The methanolic extract was diluted in dimethylsulfoxide to final concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mg/10 mL. The largest zones of inhibition against K. pneumoniae, M. luteus and B. subtilis were achieved using the concentration of 5 mg/10 mL. The concentration of 1 mg/10 mL was most effective against S. aureus and E. coli. In a 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylahydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, the 5 mg/10 mL concentration of the Jatropha seed extract showed the strongest activity. Higher concentrations of the Jatropha seed extract (10 mg/50 mL and 5 mg/50 mL) significantly inhibited the germination of radish seeds and had negative effects on radish seedling relative water content, shoot length, root length, seedling fresh weight and seedling dry weight (p<0.05). Phytochemical analyses of the defatted seeds detected alkaloids (7.3%), flavonoids (0.39%) and soluble phenolics (mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract). Based on these results, it was inferred that J. curcas seeds contain active ingredients that are effective against pathogenic microbes and therefore could be used to formulate drugs to treat various diseases.


Keywords: Antimicrobial; antioxidant; Jatropha curcas; phytochemical; phytotoxicity



Dalam kajian ini, sifat antimikrob, antioksidan, fitotoksik dan fitokimia biji Jatropha curcas nyahlemak telah dinilai. Ekstrak mentah metanol biji nyahlemak diuji terhadap tiga strain kulat - Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus dan Aspergillus fumigatus dan lima bakteria: Escherichia coli dan Klebsiella pneumoniae (Gram negatif) serta Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis dan Staphylococcus aureus (Gram positif). Ekstrak metanol dicairkan dalam dimetilsulfoksida hingga ke kepekatan akhir 1, 2, 3, 4 dan 5 mg/10 mL. Zon terbesar perencatan terhadap K. pneumoniae, M. luteus dan B. subtilis telah dicapai menggunakan kepekatan 5 mg/10 mL. Kepekatan 1 mg/10 mL adalah paling berkesan terhadap S. aureus dan E. coli. Dalam 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylahydrazyl (DPPH) asai skaveng radikal, kepekatan 5 mg/10 mL ekstrak biji Jatropha menunjukkan aktiviti yang kuat. Kepekatan tinggi ekstrak biji Jatropha (10 mg/50 mL dan 5 mg/50 mL) dengan ketara menghalang percambahan biji lobak dan mempunyai kesan negatif ke atas kandungan air relatif biji lobak, panjang pucuk, panjang akar, berat segar biji dan berat kering biji (p< 0.05). Analisis fitokimia benih nyahlemak dikesan mengandungi alkaloid (7.3%), flavonoid (0.39%) dan fenol larut (mg asid galik setara/ ekstrak gram). Berdasarkan keputusan ini, dapat disimpulkan bahawa biji J. curcas mengandungi bahan aktif yang berkesan terhadap mikrob patogen dan boleh digunakan untuk menghasilkan ubat-ubatan untuk merawat pelbagai penyakit.


Kata kunci: Antimikrob; antioksidan; fitoketoksikan; fitokimia; Jatropha curcas


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