Sains Malaysiana 46(3)(2017): 449–455


Analysis of Dibutyl Phthalate and Oleamide in Stingless Bee Honey Harvested from Plastic Cups

(Analisis Dibutil Ftalat dan Oliamid pada Madu Lebah Kelulut yang Dituai daripada Cawan Plastik)





Integrative Medicine Cluster, Advanced Medical and Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Bertam, 13200 Penang, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia


Received: 6 April 2016/Accepted: 19 August 2016



Increasing demands for stingless bee honey in Malaysia have prompted alternative method using plastic cups as artificial honey pots within beehives to enhance yield. However, honey's acidity may lead to migration of plastic additives, affecting body's physiological responses on prolonged consumption. This study was performed to determine the presence of dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and oleamide in stingless bee honey collected from plastic cups. A method for simultaneous extraction and detection of both analytes by solvent terminated dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (ST-DLLME) coupled with high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was developed. Good linearity was observed with coefficient of determination R2 ≥ 0.97 in the concentration range of 0.5-50 and 10-250 μg/g for DBP and oleamide, respectively. The limit of detection for DBP was 0.15 μg/g; while oleamide was 4 μg/g. The limit of quantitation for DBP and oleamide was 0.5 and 11 μg/g, respectively. DBP and oleamide were not detected in all the honey samples collected.


Keywords: Dibutyl phthalate; food safety; oleamide; stingless bee honey; ST-DLLME



Peningkatan permintaan bagi madu lebah kelulut di Malaysia telah menggalakkan kaedah alternatif menggunakan cawan plastik sebagai bekas madu tiruan dalam sarang lebah untuk meningkatkan hasil. Walau bagaimanapun, keasidan madu mungkin membawa kepada penghijrahan aditif plastik, mempengaruhi tindak balas fisiologi badan akibat penggunaan berpanjangan. Kajian ini dijalankan untuk menentukan kehadiran dibutil ftalat (DBP) dan oliamid dalam madu kelulut yang dikumpul daripada cawan plastik. Kaedah pengekstrakan serentak dan pengesanan oleh kedua-dua analit melalui pelarut tertamat pengekstrakan mikro cecair-cecair serakan (ST-DLLME) beserta dengan kromatografi cecair berprestasi tinggi (HPLC) telah dibangunkan. Kelinearan yang baik diperhatikan dengan pekali penentuan R2 ≥ 0.97 di dalam julat kepekatan 0.5-50 dan 10-250 μg/g masing-masing untuk DBP dan oliamid. Had pengesanan untuk DBP adalah 0.15 μg/g; manakala oliamid ialah 4 μg/g. Had pengkuantitian untuk DBP dan oliamid masing-masing adalah 0.5 dan 11 μg/g. DBP dan oliamid tidak dikesan dalam semua sampel madu yang dikumpul.


Kata kunci: Dibutil ftalat; keselamatan makanan; madu lebah kelulut; oliamid; ST-DLLME


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