Sains Malaysiana 46(9)(2017): 1429–1439


Scale Morphologies of Freshwater Fishes at Tembat Forest Reserve, Terengganu, Malaysia

(Morfologi Sisik Ikan Air Tawar di Hutan Simpan Tembat, Terengganu, Malaysia)






School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


Diserahkan: 31 Ogos 2016/Diterima: 1 April 2017




Scales are calcium carbonate and collagen-contained structures embedded within the fish epidermis and useful for species identification. This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of scales and use the differences to prepare keys to species. Fishes were sampled from selected rivers of Tembat Forest Reserve, Hulu Terengganu. Specimens caught were from 3 families (Cyprinidae, Channidae, Nandidae) and 17 species. Each species was represented by ten individuals (size ranges 2.5 - 50 cm TL). The scales were removed, soaked in H2O2 (0.5%), NH3 (0.3%), DH2O and mounted between a pair of glass slides for digital photographing. The morphological descriptions were based on types of scales, distinctiveness of radii arrangement at the anterior field, radii cover, radii distribution, overall shape, focus position and focus pattern. Keys to species were constructed based on these scale morphological characters described. Measurements of scale total length (L), total width (W), rostral field length (L1) and caudal field length (L2) of the scales were taken using Image J software. The inter-specific variation among scales was indicated by L1/L, L2/L, L1/L2 and W/L indices through multiple comparison tests (ANOVA). It was found that all 17 species showed significant differences with at least one other species in all four indices. Pristolepis grootii (Bleeker 1852) was the only one that significantly different (p<0.05) from other 16 species in the first three indices. Species that showed the least significant differences among species was Probarbus jullieni (Sauvage 1880). The differences among the scales were primarily due to the different types of scale that was either ctenoid or cycloid.


Keywords: Freshwater fishes; scale morphologies; scale types; Tembat Forest Reserve; Terengganu



Sisik ialah struktur yang mengandungi komponen kalsium karbonat dan kolagen yang terletak di bawah epidermis serta berguna untuk pengecaman spesies. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menghuraikan ciri morfologi sisik dan menggunakan perbezaan morfologi tersenarai untuk menyediakan kekunci menuju spesies. Pensampelan dijalankan di beberapa batang sungai terpilih di Hutan Simpan Tembat, Hulu Terengganu. Spesimen yang ditangkap terdiri daripada 3 famili, (Cyprinidae, Channidae, Nandidae) dan 17 spesies. Setiap spesies diwakili oleh 10 individu (saiz berukuran daripada 2.5 - 50 cm PT). Sisik ditanggalkan, kemudian direndam dalam H2O2 (0.5%), NH3 (0.3%), DH2O dan diapit di antara sepasang slaid kaca untuk diambil gambar digitalnya. Huraian ciri morfologi adalah berdasarkan jenis sisik, susunan jelas jejari di bahagian anterior, litupan jejari, taburan jejari, bentuk keseluruhan sisik, posisi fokus dan corak fokus. Kekunci menuju spesies dibuat berasaskan huraian ciri morfologi tersebut. Pengukuran panjang total (L), lebar total (W), panjang rostrum (L1) dan panjang kaudal (L2) sisik dibuat menggunakan perisian Image J. Variasi inter-spesifik dalam kalangan sisik dilihat melalui indeks L1/L, L2/L, L1/L2 dan W/L melalui ujian analisis perbandingan berganda (ANOVA). Didapati kesemua 17 spesies menunjukkan perbezaan signifikan dengan sekurang-kurangnya satu spesies lain dalam keempat-empat indeks. Pristolepis grootii (Bleeker 1852) merupakan satu-satunya spesies yang berbeza secara signifikan (p<0.05) daripada 16 spesies lainnya dalam 3 indeks pertama yang tersebut, manakala spesies yang menunjukkan perbezaan signifikan paling rendah adalah Probarbus jullieni (Sauvage 1880). Perbezaan utama morfologi sisik dapat dilihat ketara melalui jenis sisik iaitu sama ada jenis sikloid atau ktenoid.


Kata kunci: Ikan air tawar; Hutan Simpan Tembat; jenis sisik; morfologi sisik; Terengganu


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