Sg Peradin_scene Sg Pulai upstream Rhizophora apiculata
Sg Peradin_scene1 Sg Pulai upstream2 Rhizophora apiculata3
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Distribution and Diversity

iconMangroves are defined as plants, such as trees, shrubs, palms and ferns, growing within the inter-tidal region of coastal and estuarine environments throughout the tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world (author year). Mangroves can also include the plants, the associated forest communities, and the abiotic factors, which form the mangrove ecosystem (Figure 2); for instance, the term 'mangrove' can be used as an adjective, i.e. 'mangrove tree' or 'mangrove fauna'. Sometimes the term 'mangal' is used interchangeably with 'mangrove' to refer to the biological components. McNae (1968), however, proposed that mangal should only refer to the forest community, while mangroves refer to the individual plant species.


iconOther terms for mangrove forests are tidal forests, coastal woodlands, walking forests in the sea, root of the sea, oceanic rain forests, tropical swamps or 'manggi-manggi' i.e. 'above the soil'. Mangroves are also classified as a wetland ecosystem. Besides plant life, estuaries, creeks, lagoons, mudflats, and islands are included in the mangrove landscapes.

iconMangrove plants are grouped into three types: major elements or true mangroves or mangrove exclusive, minor elements or mangrove non-exclusive, and mangrove associates. True mangroves are mainly restricted to intertidal zone between high water levels of neap and spring tides. These plants are morphological adapted to survive in extreme conditions of the coastal areas (e.g. leathery leaves, vivipary germination, and aerial roots).


icon Minor elements are species that tolerate some degree of salinity. They are found in a mangrove habitat but are not restricted to it. Mangrove flora associates are all other biota that includes grasses, epiphytes, pteridophytes, bryophytes, and parasitic plants.