Special Issue 5(1) 2022
Chief Guest Editor
Prof. Madya Dr. Wardah Fatimah Mohammad Yusoff
The National University of Malaysia
Prof. Madya Dr. Nik Lukman Bin Nik Ibrahim & Dr. Khairul Azhar Mat Sulaiman
The National University of Malaysia
The theme for this special issue of Engineering Journal is the research in built environment. Original articles, original case studies and review articles are welcomed, on subjects such as green and sustainable built environment, project management, housing, culture and heritage in built environment, urban studies, facilities management, and social issues in built environment.
Table of Contents
|1.||KAJIAN TERHADAP RUANG INTERSTISIAL DAN PENDEKATAN PEMBANGUNANNYA DALAM KONTEKS PEMBANDARAN
A STUDY OF INTERSTITIAL SPACE AND ITS DEVELOPMENT APPROACH IN THE CONTEXT OF URBANIZATION
Mohammad Amin Shafian, Mohd Iskandar Abdul Malek, Nor Haslina Jaa’far, Noorsaidi Mahat, I Nyoman Gede Maha Putra & Achara Khamaksorn
In the face of the process of urbanization, population growth, increasing population needs and modern lifestyle changes, infrastructure development in urban centers around the world is also growing rapidly. Developments of urban space are some of which are not well coordinated and have left traces of waste space or interstitial space in the urban context, many researchers, and figures in the field of urbanization argue that this uncoordinated waste space leaves a variety of detrimental impacts on the city and community in the city. As a result, many researchers, and figures from various fields, especially in the field of urban design, have contributed knowledge to various solutions and opportunities to take advantage of this interstitial space. Studies have found that in recent times various approaches have been taken to utilize this interstitial space by performing various intervention strategies which each have a different impact on the quality of success of activating this space. This paper examines the concept of interstitial space that exists with the process of urbanization, the quality of public space in the city based on theoretical development by previous researchers and examines real case studies empirically in the approach of developing interstitial space towards space that benefits the city and society in it. A comprehensive empirical examination conducted through several case studies analyzed and compared based on figure theory regarding the quality of urban public space in major city with high density
Keywords : Interstitial spaces; public spaces quality; public spaces
|2.||THE IMPACT OF PRESCHOOL OUTDOOR ENVIRONMENT ON CHILDREN’S SOCIO-EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
Norazlinda Mohamad, Haryanti Mohd Affandi, Massitah Saari, Mohd Firdaus Mustaffa Kamal & Mohd Sallehuddin Mat Noor
Children are involved in various forms of social interactions, experiences, and the setting of environments in outdoor play areas that support children’s socio-emotional growth. It is necessary because the environment leaves a memorable experience for children. Other than that, it is crucial for their training and physical coordination. In addition, children’s emotional and social skills were indirectly assessed. This paper intends to incorporate an outdoor environment in preschools to meet the socio-emotional developmental needs of preschool children. Preschools located in Peninsular Malaysia were considered to be discussed in this paper. Conducting interviews with four teachers from various types of preschools can provide an initial picture of the external environment development in preschools. Early experiences of external environment interactions and the presence of social interactions with teachers and peers in preschool often impact the children’s learning experience. Two conclusions from the research findings guide the discussion on how the relationships of the preschools’ outdoor environment can foster the preschoolers’ socio-emotional growth. First, they acquire social and emotional competence with a combination of different experiences through shared or solitary experiences. Second, it was found that a variety of outdoor games with engaging spaces that offer attractions imminently stimulates game-based learning in contributing to the socio-emotional competence of preschoolers.
Keywords: Socio-emotional; outdoor environment; preschool; early childhood; social interaction
|3.||CABARAN PEMILIKAN RUMAH UNTUK GENERASI MILENIUM DI LEMBAH KLANG, MALAYSIA
MILLENNIUM GENERATION HOME OWNERSHIP CHALLENGES IN KLANG VALLEY, MALAYSIA
Azalillah Ramdani Musa & Norngainy Mohd Tawil
The Millennium Generation is a cohort of generations classified as a group between the ages of 23 to 38 years in 2019, it can be a reference point to describe the characteristics and demographics of this generation. In this new era of 2020, the Millennium generation has faced great challenges in the issue of home ownership, to understand this issue this research will identify the factors that influence home ownership and its challenges for the Millennium generation in home ownership in the Klang Valley. The methodology of this study is conducted quantitatively through a questionnaire study conducted to 500 respondents and a total of 467 respondents who have provided feedback that is 94.3%. As a result of the analysis, factors that influence ownership and challenges are identified. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 22.0 was used to analyse the data. The level of respondents’ agreement with the factor instrument was determined using mean values. Age, marital status, educational level, employer status, duration of employment, number of households, household income factors, and expenditure are factors that influence home ownership, based on the findings of the research. High cost of living, high house prices and lack of affordable housing supply, high instalment payments, high loan interest rates, no savings, high existing commitments, not eligible to buy a low-cost scheme house, employment is still unstable, and desire to buy a house after marriage are among the challenges that this Millennium generation face. The findings of this study are crucial in understanding why this problem occurs and how to address the problem of incapacity to purchase a home for this Millennium generation.
Keywords: Millennium generation; homeownership; affordable housing; challenges
|4.||PENGURUSAN RISIKO KESAN PANDEMIK COVID-19 KEPADA PROJEK PERUMAHAN TERBENGKALAI DI MALAYSIA: SATU KAJIAN LITERATUR
RISK MANAGEMENT OF THE PANDEMIC COVID-19’S IMPACT ON ABANDONED HOUSING PROJECTS IN MALAYSIA: A LITERATURE REVIEW
Ja’afar Adnan*, Mohd Taufiq Ishak, Nurul ‘Izzati Hashim, Fakroul Ridzuan Hashim & Muhammad Aiman Amran
The possibility is the uncertainty of the probability of the occurrence of an activity or event that can have a positive or negative effect is a risk. Risks to construction projects can result in losses in terms of cost and time for the construction projects involved. The impact of this risk involves the performance and loss of an organization such as housing developers, contractors or losses to certain individuals such as home buyers. The COVID-19 pandemic that has hit around the world has also had a negative impact on construction projects in Malaysia. The effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic have indirectly caused housing construction projects to be abandoned and also not to be completed within the stipulated time as in the contract. This results in the buyers not being able to occupy their homes according to the time period that has been signed in the sale and purchase agreement with the developer. This research aims to look at the risks in the management of abandoned housing projects in Malaysia and the existing risk management guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic era in Malaysia. The scope of this study is based on a literature review, current news of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as a document-based review of project management guidelines and project risk management guidelines that have been issued by government departments. This study identifies two main types of risks in the management of housing construction projects, namely from the internal and external aspects. Internal risk involves five matters relating to clients, consultants, main contractors, subcontractors and distributors of building materials. Meanwhile, risks from external aspects involve the physical, economic, political, legal and site context. Risk management strategies are used for housing construction projects for risk management to prevent the occurrence of abandoned housing projects such as retain, reduce, relocate and avoid. A review of the literature found that risk management is important for determining, evaluating and prioritizing risks by monitoring, controlling, and using proper resource management in the current economic situation in order to reduce the likelihood of adverse events and maximize project achievement. In addition, this study concludes that risk management is necessary in addressing the problem of abandoned projects during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Keywords: Abandoned housing projects; risk and management; COVID-19 pandemic
|5.||KRITERIA BANGUNAN IKONIK DALAM MENENTUKAN KEBERKESANAN ASPEK FIZIKAL DAN FUNGSI
ICONIC BUILDING CRITERIA IN DETERMINING EFFECTIVENESS PHYSICAL AND FUNCTIONAL ASPECTS
Ismar M.S. Usman, Nur Elisya’ Jasmi Thien, M.F. Irfan Md Nor, Mazlan Mohd Tahir, Nangkula Utaberta & Andika Saputra
Developments in the world of architecture are developing rapidly and contributing to the emergence of new buildings. However, the emergence of new development has led to confusion of the identity of an area. In resolving the issue of identity, various iconic buildings were produced to serve as symbols in cities around the world. Local iconic architecture can be used as a landmark in an area or better known as the ‘landmark’ of an area that symbolizes the work of architecture at a particular time in an area. The objective of the study is to identify the characters, characteristics, and landmarks of the area in determining the iconic architecture that is a step to resolve the issue of identity in an area. This study focuses more on the basic aspects that make up an environment, namely in terms of physical, social, psychological and behavioral. The research method in this study was done with live research using photographic techniques, observation, interviews and questionnaires to get the impression or perception from others who saw the building. Overall, based on secondary studies or literacy studies, it can be concluded that the definition in determining a building is iconic is to study the design of a building built according to the era and era that meets the criteria and concept of iconic, that is a building that has scale and majestic. , geometrical, as well as having properties and elements that stand out through the expression of various aspects, especially in the use of structures and building materials, as well as functions that make them an important area of focus. Therefore, the expected results of the study on the comparison of the characteristics of some of the buildings should be able to evaluate in determining the criteria to become an iconic building to further elevate the local identity in the city.
Keywords: Iconic criteria; iconic building; landmark
|6.||AKTIVITI YANG MENYUMBANG KEPADA PERSEKITARAN YANG SELAMAT DI JALAN WARISAN BANDAR LAMA KAJANG
ACTIVITY TOWARDS A SAFETY ENVIRONMENT IN TRADITIONAL STREET OF OLD KAJANG TOWN
Nor Haslina Ja’afar, Nor Afifah Husen & Mohd Iskandar Abd Malek
In urban design, streets are one of the important elements that function as public spaces, especially in Malaysia. The image of a street reflects the time as well as demonstrates the image of the city. Hence, a street with a strong sense of safety and walkability, simultaneously contributes to the similarity of the character of the place. However, the recent development of the heritage town shows a lack of activity occurring at night, hence displaying a less secure atmosphere for the place. Therefore, the objective of the article is to discuss the activities that contribute to the safe environment in ‘Jalan Mendaling’ and ‘Jalan Tukang’, ‘Bandar Warisan Kajang Selangor’. These three case studies of traditional streets were chosen as they are considered as public spaces. This research adopted a qualitative method, including the interview and field observation techniques. There were 20 respondents among the street users, from both static and mobile were interviewed. The data collected was analysed through a triangulation approach and further explained through literature evidence prior to the development of the finding. The findings show that there are several factors that contribute to the safe environment in the case studies area. It includes mixed development with residential typology, diversification of business activities, and business operating hours. The findings contributed to the architect, urban designer, and town planner in further enhancing the street design in terms of its liveability, walkability, and quality of safe streets.
Keywords: Traditional street; safe; activity; building use
|7.||KRITERIA REKA BENTUK ATRIUM DALAM ASPEK SOSIAL DAN PERSEKITARAN BANGUNAN KOMERSIAL DI LEMBAH KLANG
ATRIUM DESIGN CRITERIA IN SOCIAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL ASPECTS OF COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS IN KLANG VALLEY
Foo Jessie, Wardah Fatimah Mohammad Yusoff & Ashrifa Amir
The research was conducted to identify atrium design criteria and their impacts on social and environmental aspects at commercial buildings in the Klang Valley area, Malaysia. The design of the atrium affects the social and environmental conditions in the building. Thus, the objectives are to identify the atrium design criteria for the selected commercial buildings and to investigate their impacts on social and environmental aspects. There are two research methods namely literature study and qualitative descriptive research. The lists of atrium design criteria and their impacts on the social and environmental aspects had been produced based on literature and document reviews. Four commercial buildings in Klang Valley were selected as case studies. The findings indicate that the use of glazing roof material at the atrium promotes natural lighting and social interaction between users. Appropriate openings in the atrium space allow natural ventilation which provides energy savings. Appropriate furniture selection and layout, as well as landscaping in the atrium space, encourage the users to execute activities for longer periods of time. The large and bright atrium space allows the accommodation of various presentations, exhibitions, bazaars, and small stalls to attract the flow of users. In addition, the atrium space also provides visual access to users to understand the overall circulation of the building. To conclude, this study can be a reference in designing the atrium in buildings that are suitable for tropical climate, and understanding the atrium design criteria that contribute to the social and comfortable indoor environment for the users.
Keywords: Social criteria; environmental criteria; commercial buildings
|8.||KAJIAN PERBANDINGAN PENGGUNAAN APLIKASI LUMION DAN V- RAY FOR SKETCHUP BAGI PENGHASILAN VISUAL PERSEMBAHAN AKHIR REKA BENTUK SENI BINA
A COMPARISON STUDY ON THE USAGE OF LUMION AND V-RAY FOR SKETCHUP APPLICATIONS IN PRODUCING FINAL PRESENTATION VISUALS FOR ARCHITECTURE DESIGN
M.F.I Mohd-Nor, Nor Izatul Amirah M. Azman, Mazlan Mohd Tahir, Ismar M.S Usman & Michael P. Grant
In this fast-developing era of digital and visual technology, architectural graphics software has become increasingly sophisticated and is widely used in industry as well as in higher education; not only to facilitate the user but to get better, consistent and fast graphic results. Students majoring in architecture at the tertiary level are also no exception in ensuring that they are not left behind from following the latest technological developments, especially current technologies related to their learning process. The graphics softwares available in the market which have become more complex and specialized over the years have also proven to help architecture students in ensuring the delivery process becomes easier and better if the right software is selected and used by students. It is undeniable that if less suitable software is used by students, it will affect the end result of the desired design presentation. This study aims to make a comparison between the usage of two graphics software that are widely used by architecture students at present, namely Lumion 8.0 and V-Ray 3.4 for Sketchup, and identify the advantages and disadvantages of its rendering process. To achieve the purpose of the study, a recording of the rendering processes of both Lumion 8.0 and V-Ray for 3.4 SketchUp was made on a specific building design for the final project of an undergraduate architectural design studio course. In general terms, the results found that the advantage of Lumion 8.0 lies in the faster rendering time, while the advantage of V-Ray 3.4 for SketchUp lies in the quality of the rendering details produced.
Keywords : Architecture graphics; Lumion; V-Ray; rendering
|9.||PENDEKATAN LESTARI MASJID-MASJID LAMA DI BANDAR MELAKA
SUSTAINABILITY APPROACHES OF OLD MOSQUES IN MALACCA TOWN
Muhammad Nushi Izahar, Mohd Farid Mohamed & Wardah Fatimah Mohammad Yusoff
For a Muslim society, a mosque is very important as a place for worshipping the god as well as for social activities. Mosque has a variety of functions including ensuring a better understanding of Islam in the society and ensuring unity among the local community, including the non-muslim community. Therefore, it is important for any development of a mosque to take into account the sustainability aspect of the building which has great impacts on social, environmental, and economic factors. The objective of this study is to complete an initial study that discusses the sustainability of heritage mosques in the Malacca City Center. One of the main focuses is the green approaches. The study is still in its early stage, where a case study investigation was completed on two oldest mosques in Melaka City, namely, Kampung Hulu Mosque and Kampung Kling Mosque. This initial study focuses on the roles of the mosques on the locals in the aspects of social, environmental and economic. This study also discusses the history and architecture of the mosques. The findings of the study show that the Kampung Hulu Mosque and the Kampung Kling Mosque should be used as examples of a sustainable religious building that covers all aspects, namely economic, social and environmental aspects. This study reveals the sustainability approach of the mosques, and it also proves the role of the mosque is very important in community development. The sustainable design of these heritage mosques can be used as an example and guide to the construction of modern mosques.
Keywords: Kampung Hulu Mosque; Kampung Kling Mosque; sustainability
|10.||KESAN PENGGUNAAN UNJURAN MELINTANG KEPADA PENCAHAYAAN SIANG BILIK KULIAH DI BANGUNAN PENTADBIRAN, FAKULTI KEJURUTERAAN DAN ALAM BINA, UNIVERSITI KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA
EFFECT OF HORIZONTAL SHADING DEVICE TOWARDS DAYLIGHTING IN LECTURE ROOM AT ADMINISTRATION BUILDING, FACULTY OF ENGINEERING AND BUILT ENVIRONMENT, UNIVERSITI KEBANGSAAN MALAYSIA
Khairul Ihsan Badri, Mohd Khairul Azhar Mat Sulaiman, Zabidi Hamzah, Mohd Fadlullah Gimat & Maryam Qays Oleiwi
Daylighting plays a crucial role in making the lecture room comfortable, particularly in terms of vision. Additionally, by lowering reliance on artificial lighting, it eases the load of electricity use. However, windows made of transparent glass let most of the sunlight inside, which degrades the visual clarity and causes glare. Therefore, strategies for limiting daylighting entry are crucial to solving the issue. One of the techniques is the use of window overhangs, including egg-crate, horizontal, and vertical forms. However, the utilisation of solely horizontal types of overhang is the exclusive subject of this study. In this study, the lighting in existing lecture room was analysed, and the impact of projections on the quality of lighting in lecture room was also looked at. This study employed the lecture room at the Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment (FKAB) known as the Seminar Room as a case study. The space is typically utilised for giving lectures as part of educational activities. Field measurements and simulations with Sefaira software were the methods employed for data collecting. By contrasting data from the simulations and field observations, the simulation software was also validated. According to the study, lecture room in the FKAB Administration Building are less successful when using a single horizontal window overhang. It is possible to contribute to a more sustainable building design with better daylight discoveries, especially for learning and teaching, by researching the most efficient horizontal projection ratio.
Keywords: Shading device; horizontal overhang; sefaira; daylighting; lecture room
|11.||KEPENTINGAN PERANAN PASAR TRADISI DALAM KONTEKS BANDAR WARISAN
THE IMPORTANCE OF THE ROLE OF TRADITIONAL MARKETS IN THE CONTEXT OF HERITAGE CITIES
Mohamad Al-Hafiz M Saharuddin, Azimin Samsul M Tazilan, A Wafiy Haniff Kamal & Marcin Zbiec
The traditional market architecture is a cultural space that supports the growth of local community activities in the heritage city. Its role depicts daily trade and community activities. The emergence of modern market architecture has caused the state of traditional market architecture to be increasingly threatened by economic competition and the presence of global culture. This research describes the tangible and intangible elements of the traditional market from the cultural aspect around the heritage city. The methodology used in this research is qualitative, where the data were gleaned from primary and secondary sources. The findings show that the unique elements of traditional markets still exist around the heritage city as a cultural space through the influence of historical values, diversity of activities, socio-culture, uniqueness of fresh and economical products, traditional business, central location and accessibility. In conclusion, the traditional market architecture needs to maintain its role and function as a sustainable cultural space in order to colour the economic, social and environmental growth of the local community in the city. In addition, this study can be used as a guideline to market development in the future to achieve a sustainable and unique quality of life of local community development growth.
Keywords: Tradition marketplace; culture; heritage town
|12.||PENYESUAI GUNAAN SEMULA RUMAH KEDAI LAMA DI JALAN MENDALING, KAJANG – SATU TINJAUAN UMUM
THE ADAPTIVE REUSE OF OLD SHOP HOUSES AT JALAN MENDALING, KAJANG – AN OVERVIEW
Suhana Johar, Tan Sherron & Noraziah Mohammad
Building conservation is generally an effort to preserve and maintain a cultural and natural heritage to prolong its entire life so it can be enjoyed to our new generations. One of the popular conservation approaches used around the world is adaptive reuse. As part of the agendas in Sustainable Development Goal 2030 by the United Nation Development Program, the adaptive reuse approach can save resources by using new building materials and land use planning in construction and development. The rows of heritage buildings such as the old shophouses can be found easily in old town centres and some of these stocks are under threat of destruction due to negligence. The purpose of this study is to identify the building conservation approach carried out on the old shophouses in Jalan Mendaling, Bandar Kajang and to identify their retained original function. A survey was done to the identified location which was firstly initiated with a preliminary study of the related theory. Content analysis was also performed to obtain adaptive reuse strategies that suit the building typology. A total of 36 old shophouse buildings located on the road have been identified for their building design, type of business, functional change and facade renovation. The results of the analysis found that 78% or most of the subjects still retain their original function as business premises although most of them have changed the original business form and underwent a transformation of architecture from their original design. The original function can be seen on the ground level but on the upper floor has undergone a change of use. It was also found that the old shophouses that were left empty mostly needed a suitable business strategy as the location of the building in Jalan Mendaling is on the main traffic route of the Kajang City.
Keywords: Adaptive reuse; building conservation; old shop houses; Jalan Mendaling
|13.||PENGGUNAAN PANDUAN MUDAH PENCAHAYAAN SIANG DALAM REKA BENTUK BANGUNAN PERPUSTAKAAN BERLAINAN ERA
THE USE OF DAYLIGHTING RULES OF THUMB IN LIBRARIES ACROSS DIFFERENT ERAS
Sarah Mohd Hilmee, Nik Lukman Nik Ibrahim & Hayder M. F. Alnaser
This study investigates the use of daylighting rules of thumb in four libraries across different eras and aims to outline different guides, methods and strategies used by architects in applying daylighting design in this building typology. Two historical libraries prior to the 20th century were selected to identify the use of daylighting strategies during the times when electrical lighting was not yet available in buildings. In the other hand, two post 20th centruy libraries were also selected for a similar daylighting rules of thumb appraisal. The study reveals that three daylighting rules of thumb were commonly used in all of the library buildings appraised which include the limiting floor depth rule, window area to wall area ratio and window area to floor area ratio. It was found that the most consistent daylighting rule of thumb is the limiting floor depth whereby the depth of typical floor plan is within the range of approximately 6 meters for unilateral and 12 meters for bilateral daylighting. Each sampled library building was found to utilise a combination of daylighting rules of thumb in it’s design. This demonstrates that simple daylighting guides have been used to design library buildings in different climates, sites and eras. It also indicates that daylighting rules of thumb or simple guides have been timelessly used by architects to design well daylit library buildings.
Keywords: Daylighting; rules of thumb; libraries
|14.||PEMILIHAN JENIS-JENIS MOTIF UKIRAN PADA RUMAH WARISAN SELEPAS KEDATANGAN ISLAM KE TANAH MELAYU
SELECTION OF CARVING MOTIF TYPES ON HERITAGE HOUSES AFTER THE DISSEMINATION OF ISLAM IN MALAYA
Azreena Abu Bakar, Kamarul Afizi Kosman & Nor Zalina Harun
Malay heritage carvings were heavily influenced by Hindu-Buddhist culture before the dissemination of Islam. This is evidenced by the paintings of mythical animals and floral motifs found on archaeological objects in Lembah Bujang. The arrival of Islam in Malaya in the 14th century finally brought great changes in the world of carving, including in Terengganu and Kelantan. This study aimed to identify the initial motifs used after the dissemination of Islam in Malaya. The states of Kelantan and Terengganu were chosen because most of the old houses and skilled woodcarvers were born there and are famous for their various carving motifs. Fourteen houses identified as heritage houses were selected. The carvings on 12 houses in Kelantan and Terengganu were based on measured drawings at the Center for Malay Studies (KALAM) UTM, Skudai. A heritage house was then selected as the ideal sample of the 14 heritage houses selected to identify the initial motifs used after the dissemination of Islam. Two famous woodcarvers were interviewed on the aspect of motif selection. The study focused on some components of the house with many carved motifs such as on walls and ventilation panels. The carving motifs were studied for their importance in terms of motif selection and placement. The results of this study found that there are four types of motifs that are often chosen after the dissemination of Islam in Malaya which are flora, fauna, calligraphy and geometry motifs. It is hoped that this study can contribute to the search for Malaysia identity in the context of history and heritage.
Keywords: Carving motifs types; heritage house carvings; carving motifs in Islam
|15.||KRITERIA REKA BENTUK SUSUN ATUR RUANG TERTUTUP AWAM MELALUI PENJARAKAN FIZIKAL DALAM MENCEGAH PENULARAN COVID-19 DI KOMPLEKS MEMBELI-BELAH
DESIGN CRITERIA FOR LAYOUT OF PUBLIC ENCLOSED SPACES THROUGH PHYSICAL DISTANCING IN PREVENTING COVID-19 TRANSMISSION IN SHOPPING MALLS
Kamarul Afizi Kosman, Siti Nur Yusra Yusof & Sarah Mohd Hilmee
COVID-19 is a respiratory disease that has a high rate of infection caused by SARS-CoV-2 virus. The virus is known to infect a person through spreading of small liquid particles or droplets from an infected person when they talk, cough, sneeze, or breathe. Therefore, it is important to slow down rate of infection through physical distancing between individuals. The main objective of this writing is to identify the current layout of enclosed public spaces that incorporates physical distancing and to determine the layout criteria for spatial design in shopping complexes to address the spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19 following the new norm lifestyle. Shopping complexes are large and compact in design that is limited to the general use of air conditioning which can increases the threat of an outbreaks, especially to those under the high-risk category. This makes shopping complexes a risky and unsafe space. This study uses qualitative method and involves observation and focus group interview session. The interview session includes 5 Professional Architects as respondents. Both techniques will be analyzed descriptively through thematic analysis. Through this study, there are design criteria identified in preventing the spread of COVID-19. The findings of this study are expected to open the minds of architects and private developers as well as the government to make critical revisions in the design of closed public spaces especially in shopping complexes, to provide safe and healthy spaces designed for the public.
Keywords: COVID-19; Space design; shopping complex; enclosed public spaces
|16.||PERSEPSI ORANG KURANG UPAYA (OKU) TERHADAP POTENSI PERUSAHAAN KECIL DAN KEUSAHAWANAN DARI RUMAH UNTUK AKSESIBILITI PREMIS PERSENDIRIAN
PERCEPTIONS OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES (PWDS) ON THE POTENTIAL OF SMALL ENTERPRISES AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP FROM HOME FOR ACCESSIBILITY OF PRIVATE PREMISES
Nur Amirah Abd Samad, Asiah Abdul Rahim & Nurul Aishah Abu Bakar
Covid -19 which has started to spread to Malaysia in 2020 has changed the lifestyle of the people in terms of economic, social and environmental. The new living norms introduced have changed lives and have stunted the economic growth of the country especially when many companies have closed their businesses. An impact from the movement control order (MCO) implemented has an impact on the employment sector. This is because, many employment sectors had to be closed in an effort to help the government curb the spread of COVID-19 from continuing to spread in the community. Most companies, business operations, private organizations and the government were shut down immediately during MCO, which has resulted in many companies not being able to cover their expenses, causing companies to lay off employees. Although it affects everyone but the disabled are more impressed with the limitations they have experienced before. The purpose of this study is to find out the perception of persons with disabilities (PwDs) on the potential of upgrading the accessibility of private premises to be PwDs friendly as a physical stimulus for the development of PwDs businesses and small enterprises. Therefore, this study uses an exploratory mixed method design approach by starting the study by reviewing the documents related to government financial assistance and subsequently distributing the survey form. The conclusion of this study will highlight the perceptions of PWDs in the field of entrepreneurship in physical premises and government financial assistance that has been provided before and during the pandemic in Malaysia.
Keywords: PwDs entrepreneurship; government financial pandemic aid; Accessibility at private premises