Volume 33(4) 2021
Table of Contents
|1.||LATEST ADVANCEMENT OF TECHNOLOGIES IN SUPPLY CHAIN MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEW
Nizaroyani Saibani*, Jaharah A. Ghani, Muhammad Hassan Shamsul Akmar, Wa Kai Boon, Mohan Raj Ravi, Muhammad Azim Md Nawawi & Nur Aziatul Izwa Mohd Asri
Supply chain management (SCM) involves an interconnected structure of facilities that produces elements or compounds for transforming into a semifinished compound. After completion, the final compound is delivered to customers via a distribution system. Owing to ever-changing customer demands, increasingly efficient and resilient SCM is necessary, which requires support from the latest technologies. Therefore, this paper presents an overview of the latest technologies in SCM and logistics. The management of a supply chain and role of the different actors involved differ from industry to industry and company to company. Consequently, SCM has become a crucial issue to manufacturers, professionals and researchers. The latest technologies identified in this paper include radio frequency identification, vehicular ad hoc networks, the Internet of things, robotics and artificial intelligence and blockchain. Moreover, the application of the aforementioned technologies in different industries and systems is discussed to understand how the technologies impact practitioners. Although not discussed thoroughly, other recent technology trends in SCM and logistics, such as machine learning, autonomous vehicles/drones, advanced analytics, cloud logistics, supergrid logistics, anticipatory logistics, omnichannel logistics and additive manufacturing (3D printing), are also highlighted in this paper. By understanding the advancements in SCM technology, the possible direction of future innovations can be effectively planned and articulated.
Keywords : Supply Chain Management (SCM); Radio Frequency Identification (RFID); Vehicular ad hoc networks (VANET); Internet of Things (IoT); Robotic and Artificial Intelligent (AI); Blockchain.
|2.||EFFECT OF FRICTION STIR PROCESSING ON AZ91 MG-ALLOY: A REVIEW
Samir Rathod*, Daulat Kumar Sharma, Minal Dani, Paras Rank & Nikunj Savaliya
Generally properties of as-cast AZ91 soft Mg-alloy can be improved by conventional artificial aging. Conventional methods are time consuming and expensive process. Friction stir processing (FSP) based on working principle of Friction stir welding can replace the conventional processes at some extent. FSP generates enough heat in process to decrease grain size of coarse grains significantly and accordingly alter the properties. FSP extensive used for modification of morphology, grain refinement etc. and especially for as cast alloys. By performing FSP successfully on AZ91 alloy many properties of as-cast AZ91 can be changed significantly by varying friction stir process parameters. The improved resultant properties of Friction stir processed AZ91 alloys are credited to plastic deformation of alloy sheet by rotating non-consumable tool. Due to plastic deformation number of dislocation increase and it may by pile up, as a result the movement of dislocations are restricted and it required more stress to deform, thus strengthen the alloy. Tool in FSP plays crucial role, as tool shoulder and tool pin generate frictional heat, tool pin also used to improve material flow characteristics. FSP reduced grain size and enhanced various properties. This paper mainly reviews the effect of FSP on AZ91 Mg-alloy in terms of various properties enhancement.
Keywords: Friction stir processing; Plastic deformation; AZ91 Mg-alloy
|3.||THE ROLE OF BRAIN SIGNAL PROCESSING AND NEURONAL MODELLING IN EPILEPSY – A REVIEW
Tahereh Najafi, Rosmina Jaafar*, Rabani Remli, Asyraf W. Zaidi & Kalaivani Chellappan
Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by recurrent seizures due to spontaneous changes of chemical synaptic coupling within the central nervous system. Numerous studies have been done in order to increase the level of cognition in epilepsy. Electroencephalography (EEG) as a non-invasive technique with the ability of presenting potentials on the head surface due to neural activity is widely used in epilepsy studies. The signals have been analyzed by brain signal processing techniques which mainly are categorized in feature extraction, feature dimensionally reduction and classification. The limitations such as inapproachability to intracranial in vivo and few seizure occurrences during sampling led to investigate on a model of signals and neural activity. This paper reviews the fundamentals of epilepsy toward using brain signal processing and neuronal modeling in three major branches; detection, prediction and source localization. It resulted a rare number of investigations on seizure epilepsy prediction due to the lack of long-term epilepsy EEG recording ending to the seizure. Subsequently, this review paper suggests to consider brain signal processing techniques in sub-branches of epilepsy detection; status, type, markers and surface localization, whilst it plays a remarkable role targeting to the source localization by neuronal modeling.
Keywords: Epilepsy; EEG; brain signal processing; neuronal modelling; detection; prediction; source localization
|4.||SENARIO UMUM PENGURUSAN SISA PANDEMIK COVID-19 DI MALAYSIA: SATU TINJAUAN
Rodzidah Mohd Rodzi*, Zulkifli Mohd Nopiah & Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri
Malaysia recorded 880,782 cumulative confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and 6,613 deaths as of July 15, 2021. The impact of the high number of infections and movement control order (MCO), Malaysia experienced a 60% to 70% increase in total household waste generation and 120% to 150% increase in healthcare waste. This study aims to conduct a systematic literature review on the general scenario of COVID-19 pandemic waste management in Malaysia. The research methodology is by referring to the literatures in the scholar sites including Scopus, Web of Science and Malay Language journals using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyzes (PRISMA) model. English journals were screened using the Central Access Database for Impact Assessment (CADIMA) software, while Malay journals screening was conducted using the Academia.edu search engine. The screening results found that a total of 43 articles out of 571 articles were identified to meet the study criteria. The findings of this study present the pandemic situation in Malaysia, the impact on waste management, the updating of guidelines by the World Health Organization (WHO) as well as the flow of waste management procedures throughout the COVID-19 pandemic period. This study provides insights into the infectious waste management implemented in Malaysia, elucidating how waste management affects the spread of infection and necessary information on healthcare waste management procedures that have been updated by WHO (2020). Proposed further study on the waste management process in depth based on the guidelines that have been updated by WHO (2020) in health centers, residential areas and public places.
Keywords: COVID-19; Malaysia; waste management procedure; healthcare waste; World Health Organization
|5.||DEVELOPMENT OF MALAYSIAN DRIVER ANGER SCALE (MDAS): A PILOT SURVEY AND RELIABILITY ANALYSIS
Naida Rosli, Kamarudin Ambak*, Sharifah Osman@Liew Shyuan Yei & Leksmono Suryo Putranto
Anger is a negative emotion and able to present problems on the road because it can cause aggressive driving, violation and can lead to risk of road accidents. Malaysia is one of the countries that records highest number of accident due to aggressive driving. Therefore, this study has proposed Malaysian Driver Anger Scale (MDAS) which is suitable in the context of driving culture in Malaysia by modifying instrument driving questionnaire anger scale (DAS) introduced by Deffenbacher et al. (1994). This study identified research gaps of Driving Anger Scale (DAS) by doing a literature review. Initially, this study attempted to find a suitable primary theory model to describe anger among drivers. After DAS was selected as a reference theory model, this study tried to find out DAS study applied in Malaysia in order to figure out how well this theory model used in Malaysia. Then, based on previous studies, this study drafted a questionnaire and proposed MDAS. Pilot test was run to identify the weaknesses of items in the set of the survey form and to determine the reliability internal consistency of items. A Questionnaire form was selected as an instrument and scoring were based on a 5 point Likert scale. This study was conducted among drivers in Parit Raja, Batu Pahat Johor. A 30 voluntary respondents were selected to answer the survey form. They were approached face to face to determine the weaknesses of items in the set of the survey and all the weaknesses or errors in the survey form were recorded for improvement. All data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Science (SPSS) to gain Cronbach’s Alpha coefficient. The pilot test result analysis showed Cronbach’s alpha coefficient for DAS (Discourtesy α = .922; Traffic Obstruction α =. 902; Hostiles Gestures α = .896; Slowly Driving α = .838; Police Presence α = .927; Illegal Driving α = .906) and Road Accident Risk Factor (α = .776) is acceptable. Only the Psychological Effect (α = .576) showed less satisfactory Cronbach’s alpha coefficients. Therefore, this study will modify all the items with less satisfactory results in addition to seeking advice from the expert.. This study will proceed with future work by interviewing respondents who have experiences related to road bullying to gather more information on anger driving in Malaysia.
Keywords: Anger; Malaysian Driver Anger Scale; Cronbach’s Alpha
|6.||COMPOSTING FRUIT AND VEGETABLE WASTE USING BLACK SOLDIER FLY LARVAE
Irfana Kabir Ahmad*, Zawawi Samba Mohamed, Nur Fardilla Amrul, Chong Wai Quan, Nurul Ain Abdul Jalil, Noor Ezlin Ahmad Basri & Mohd Reza Azmi
In recent years, the amount of solid waste generated has been increasing, and larger land space is needed for the disposal of the generated waste. One of the ways to deal with the limited landfill space is by composting organic waste using black soldier fly larvae. This study aims to determine the percentage of BSFL growth and to assess the effectiveness of using BSFL in composting fruits, boiled vegetables, and raw vegetables. The waste used in this study was collected from the college cafeteria and sorted into three waste categories, and 100g of each waste category was placed in different containers. Two different sets of experiments were carried out using an initial weight of 2g and 4g of BSFL. Within 17-days experiment, the weight of BSFL and composted waste were measured every three or four days, also an additional 100g of new waste was added to the containers until the amount of waste reached a total of 500g. The BSFL fed with the fruit waste has the highest growth percentage of 1700% relative to their initial weight of 2g. The BSFL with a higher initial density of 4g showed a lower percentage growth of 1200%. Fruit waste showed the highest percentage of weight reduction of 57%. This study has proven that fruit waste is a more suitable medium for larval growth compared to vegetable waste. The use of BSFL in organic waste composting is an effective method for reducing the amount of wastes disposed of in landfills.
Keywords: Black soldier fly larvae; composting; waste reduction; organic waste management
|7.||ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE PREDICTION MODEL FOR SWELLING POTENTIAL OF SOIL AND QUICKLIME ACTIVATED RICE HUSK ASH BLEND FOR SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION
Kennedy C. Onyelowe*, Fazal E. Jalal, Michael E. Onyia, Ifeanyichukwu C. Onuoha, George U. Alaneme & Chidozie Ikpa
Artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system or the adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) has been deployed to predict the swelling potential (SP) of treated weak soil. The soil was treated with quicklime activated rice husk ash (QARHA) and the prediction efficiency was compared with the previous outcomes of this operation from literature. The need for effective utilization of construction materials to achieve sustainable designs and monitoring of the behavior of built environment is the motivation behind the deployment of artificial intelligence in geo-environmental research and field operations. The use of ANFIS is common in different fields of science and business to predict the best fits from several data points. The results of this modeling exercise conducted with 25 datasets from mixture experimental treatment of soft soil with QARHA has shown that ANFIS is a better tool compared to the individual algorithms of ANN and FL and even the other artificial intelligence tools like scheffe, ANOVA, regression and extreme vertices methods. With performance index of 88% and correlation of about 71% in the ANFIS testing and 17% and 99% respectively in the ANFIS training, ANFIS proved to be a more powerful tool in achieving a more sustainable material utilization in earthwork constructions, design and monitoring of geotechnical systems performance.
Keywords: Soft Computing; Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS); Artificial Intelligence (AI); swelling potential; fuzzification; defuzzification; sustainable construction materials
|8.||DEVELOPMENT OF A MAGNETIC FIELD PROBE FOR NEAR-FIELD MEASUREMENT
Goh Kai Loon & Mohd Hafiz Baharuddin
Current electronic circuits are characterised by their compact design of miniaturisation; however, such a feature has also contributed to the rise of electromagnetic compatibility issues. This study introduces a technique to develop a magnetic field probe for near-field measurement. The probe aims at performing the debugging of electromagnetic interference on an integrated circuit. Certain processes, such as designing a microstrip line in simulation and a prototype for the validation as well as developing a functional magnetic field probe for near-field scanning and calibration measurement to determine the probe factor, have been performed under a frequency domain. The microstrip line model is built both as a simulation and a real prototype, and the handcrafted loop probe is developed with the same diameter as a commercial probe. Calibration measurement is set-up with a vector network analyser (VNA) to capture the magnetic field on radiated plane. The performance of the handcrafted probe in terms of measuring the configuration of the H-field source on the scattering region is conducted. Two types of measurements which are S11 and S21 will be conducted using a VNA. The comparison of the S11 and S21 results against simulation results are plotted using MATLAB. S11 represents the return loss of the microstrip line while S21 represents the power received by the magnetic field probe relative to power input to the microstrip line. The results of the S11 parameter indicate that the customised microstrip line board has a similar waveform pattern that matches the one on the simulation model. The S21 results for the handcrafted probe revealed that it can only function well up to the frequency of 2.644 GHz, the abnormal result obtained after the frequency mentioned. Some factors may have affected the results, such as material loss, fabrication tolerance and interferences from other devices. Therefore, calibration measurement is conducted under a less reflected radiation environment, and the designated substrate should be a perfect material correlated with the measurement.
Keywords : Electromagnetic compatibility issues; microstrip line; handcrafted loop probe
|9.||KAJIAN ILIMIAH TERHADAP PROSES PEMBUATAN KENAF DENGAN PROPILENA
Norjamalullail Tamri*, Rozli Zulkifli, Che Husna Azhari & Albert Uchenna Ude
The manufacturing process in its earliest form, consisted only of one skilled worker and his assistant but, after the industrial revolution, the manufacturing process became a large-scale industry. The factory system was first adopted in Britain at the beginning of the industrial revolution in the late 18th century. The concept for making composites is with open and closed mold. The purpose of the study is to study the methods by scientific researchers in the combination of polypropylene polymer with natural source material, Kenaf. It was found that almost all researchers use the same technique, namely the process of hot press and injection molding (after compounded). The hot press process is also known as compression molding or matched die technique. This process is similar to the sheet metal forming process. The method of blending using a compound machine combine two or more ingredients into one homogeneous mass in a continuous process. From the process, a pallet is produced, then from a pallet-shaped material, the injection molding method is used to produce a sample or dumbbell. Every study has proven the effectiveness of the mixture as well as its manufacturing techniques, but it ends in research arae. It is a benefit if every study can be continued by producing products that can be used in the industry. This usability will encourage researchers to explore simpler but less costly manufacturing methods or techniques.
Keywords: Kenaf; polypropylene; hot press; injection molding; manufacturing
|10.||MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING-BASED ESTIMATION OF KNEE CARTILAGE THICKNESS WITH MATLAB
Joyce Sia Sin Yin, Tan Tian Swee*, Khairil Amir bin Sayuti, Ahmad Tarmizi Musa, Azli Bin Yahya, Matthias Tiong Foh Thye, Sameen Ahmed Malik, Jahanzeb Sheikh, Jeremy Sia Yik Xian
Detection of early knee osteoarthritis remains a driving force in the search for more promising quantitative assessment approaches. Apart from other conventional methods such as radiography, computed tomography, and sonography, magnetic resonance imaging has become more widely available and has made it essential to visualize the knee’s entire anatomy. Biomarkers such as joint space narrowing, articular cartilage thickness, cartilage volume, cartilage surface curvature, lesion depth, and others are used to determine disease progression in non-invasive manner. In this research, a regional cartilage normal thickness approximation (RCN-ta) model was developed with MATLAB to enable rapid cartilage thickness assessment with a simple click. The model formulated was compared to the FDA-cleared software measurements. A reasonable range of 0.135-0.214 mm of root-mean-square error may be predicted from the model. With a high ICC > 0.975, the model was highly accurate and reproducible. A good agreement between the proposed model and the medically used software can be found with a high Pearson correlation of r > 0.90.
Keywords: Cartilage thickness; quantitative assessment; normal thickness; knee osteoarthritis; MATLAB
|11.||EFFECT OF OXIDATION STABILITY ON THE FUEL AND STORAGE PROPERTIES OF BALANITES AEGYPTIACA BIODIESEL
Abdulyakin Usman* & Ibrahim Ahmad Rufai
Biodiesel prepared from Balanites aegyptiaca oil, through transesterifcation process, has promising potentials for use as fuel for diesel engines. However, there is limited information regarding the physical and chemical stability of this biodiesel during storage. In view of the aforementioned, this study was carried out in order to determine the oxidation stability as well as the extent of deterioration of Balanites aegyptiaca biodiesel during storage. Storage stability study was carried-out for three (3) months with the view to investigate the effect of oxidation on the biodiesel. The induction period and storage stability parameters were determined in accordance with official standard methods. The Balanites aegyptiaca biodiesel was found to have an induction period of 66 minutes. The storage stability study shows that: the peroxide value increased from 1.4 mEq/kg to 9.4 mEq/kg; cetane number increased from 50.42 to 52.48; while acid value increased from 0.11 mgKOH/g to 0.36 mgKOH/g. In addition, changes were observed in: saponification value from 215.99 mgKOH/g to 220.19 mgKOH/g, kinematic viscosity from 4.7 mm2/sec to 5.0 mm2/sec at 40˚C and density from 887 kg/m3 to 897 kg/m3 at 15˚C. The iodine value and lower heating value decreases from 68.53 gI2/100g to 55.84 gI2/100g and from 37.5 MJ/kg to 36.2 MJ/kg respectively during the storage period. However, despite the variations observed during the storage, the parameters were still within the ASTM and European specification standards for biodiesel. The result suggests that the Balanites aegyptiaca biodiesel may be stored for up to three months without losing its fuel properties.
Keywords: Balanites aegyptiaca; biodiesel; storage stability parameters; oxidation stability
|12.||GREYWATER TREATMENT USING POTTERY WASTE CERAMIC FILTER
Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed*, Adel Al-Gheethi, Nasradeen . A . Khalifa, Nurina Fitriani, Abdurrahman Adeleke, Ibraheem Yakubu Ebenehi & Siti Asmah Bakar
Most village houses in Malaysia discharged lots of significant portion of greywater into stream or drains without any treatment. This phenomenon of direct disposal of greywater into the environment caused environmental risk, especially to water body. This study aimed to assess the quality and treatment of greywater discharge using pottery waste ceramic filter (PWCF) for safe disposal. Greywater samples were collected from 27 village households located at Kampung Parit Sempadan, Parit Raja using grab sampling method. Greywater was treated by using PWCF. The effectiveness of the PWCF was optimized using different sizes (0.25, 0.60, and 1.18 mm) of ceramic filter media at different hydraulic retention times (HRT: 1, 2, and 3 h). The t-test analysis showed significant differences between greywater from the two drainage distances. The results revealed that a distance within 81–100 m was significant to the influence of gender and the number of household occupants of the greywater discharged. The results of this study highlight that PWCF reduced the concentration of COD, BOD and TSS in greywater by 99.4%, 74.3 and 100% respectively using particle size of 0.25 mm and HRT of 3 hours. Finally, it deduced that the use of PWCF was effective and can enhance the quality of greywater for safe disposal.
Keywords: Ceramic Filtration, Hydraulic Retention Time, Greywater Quality, Reduction
|13.||PROCESS VARIABLES OPTIMIZATION FOR HEAT PUMP DRYING OF ROSELLE CALYX BY USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY
Norhaida Hanum Ahmad Tajudin, Wei Lun Ang*, Siti Masrinda Tasirin & Masli Irwan Rosli
Heat pump drying technology has been recognized for its capability to conserve energy consumption and product quality in drying process. Understanding the influence of drying conditions on product quality and optimisation are necessary to cut down the drying cost. In this study, the drying of Roselle calyx using heat pump dryer was optimized using response surface method where Central Composite Design (CCD) was employed to investigate the effects of independent variables: drying temperature (40-60ᵒC) and sample mass (100-300 g), on the response variables (drying time, energy consumption and colour changes). The drying study aimed to achieve minimum drying time, energy consumption and total colour changes. It was discovered that temperature factor has dominant effect on drying time while sample mass on energy consumption and colour changes. The interplay between the variables was closely related to heat transfer and moisture evaporation rates of the sample. The optimum drying conditions as determined were at drying temperature of 60ᵒC and sample mass of 100 g. Under these conditions, the drying time, energy consumption, and colour difference were 332.3 min, 27.05 kWh, and 4.29 ∆E, respectively. The optimization model was well validated since the difference between the predicted and experimental results was below 3%.
Keywords: Roselle; drying; heat pump; optimization; central composite design
|14.||ELASTIC INVESTIGATION OF PIERS NUMBERS EFFECTS IN TRANSVERSE DIRECTION ON THE STIFFNESS OF CONTINUOUS AND SIMPLY SUPPORTED BRIDGES
Ali Fadhil Naser
Piers were important structural members between superstructure and foundation of bridge which were designed to transfer and resist the vertical loads and horizontal loads (dead load of structure, traffic loads, water pressure, ice, and wind) to the foundation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of number of piers in transverse direction (horizontal distance or spacing) between piers on the static and dynamic responses for two types of bridges structure which they include continuous and simply supported bridges. Static and dynamic analysis methods were adopted to analyse the bridges structures by using CSI-bridge software. The results of static analysis for two types of bridges models (continuous and simply supported) showed that the increasing of piers numbers had significant effects on the increasing of bridge structure stiffness by decreasing the downward vertical deflection due to service loads, increasing of the resistance of prestressed loads to service loads, and increasing of compression stresses. The results of time history analysis for two types of bridges models showed that the values of natural frequency were increased when the piers numbers were increased. Traffic load frequency (vibration frequency) values were decreased with increasing of bridge piers number because of the bridge structure had more stability. It can be concluded that the values of natural frequency were more than values of traffic load frequency, indicating that the bridges structures had enough stiffness and stability.
Keywords: Bridge piers; continuous bridge; simply supported bridge; moment; deflection; stresses; frequency
|15.||LITERATURE STUDY OF BUILDING VERTICALITY MONITORING ANALYSIS USING GNSS AND TRIAXIAL TILTMETER DATA INTEGRATION
Aditya Z. M. Gunawan, Asep Y. Saptari, Hendy F. Suhandri*, Nasradeen A. Khalifa & Khairul Nizam Mohd Yunus
The vertical housing system is a solution for the urban population which continues to increase as time goes. By using high-rise buildings, the land used for housing will be more effective. However, high-rise buildings have their own problems, one of which is bending due to the load acting on the building. One of the loads that causes bending in buildings is wind load. Bending will cause a major problem for the building’s endurance if the deviation exceeds the structural strength tolerance of the building, which will cause structural failure in the future. Therefore, it is necessary to periodically monitor the verticality of the building to detect this bending, both during and after constructions, to evaluate the performance and health of the building. The monitoring can be carried out using a variety of methods and equipment, one of which is particularly using the GNSS observation and triaxial tiltmeter measurement. GNSS measurement is used to detect the lateral displacement of the building, while the triaxial tiltmeter measurement is used to detect the deflection angle that is formed when the building is bending. To examine whether monitoring with GNSS and triaxial tiltmeter measurements can be used for practical purpose, this contribution delivers a simulation of wind load calculations to one high rise building in Bandung, Indonesia. This factor, in particular, is chosen to see the impact of bending on a building at high level floors. The wind load calculation refers to an Indonesian National Standard (SNI) 03-1727-2013, while the bending calculation will be carried out based on the beam deflection theory. Based on the simulation, it is found that the deflection that occurs at the highest level reaches 2.832 cm, and the largest deflection angle reaches 1.792”. Hypothetically, it can be stated that these values can be detected by the survey standard GNSS observation and the triaxial tiltmeter measurement since the accuracy of those two monitoring tools is smaller than the simulation results. In turn, the health and safety of the buildings being monitored can be determined, which leads to issuing of the building functionality certificate for the building insurance purpose.
Keywords: high-rise building; bending; wind load;GNSS observation; triaxial tiltmeter measurement; Indonesian National Standard (SNI); deflection theory; building functionality certificate; building insurance
|16.||SYNTHESIS OF POLYCAPROLACTONE-HYDROXYAPATITE (PCL-HA) BIODEGRADABLE NANOFIBRES VIA AN ELECTROSPINNING TECHNIQUE FOR TISSUE ENGINEERING SCAFFOLDS
Muhammad Zikri Aiman Zulkifli*, Shazwani Amenina Sharbani, Darman Nordin*, Norazuwana Shaari & Siti Kartom Kamarudin
The interest in biodegradable polymer nanofibres with tissue cell regeneration potential has increased in recent years. However, there are issues in the development of scaffolding to provide a favourable environment for cell proliferation and attachment. Such issues can be overcome by the addition of hydroxyapatite (HA), which is widely used in biomaterial applications. Biodegradable nanofibres of polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) have been produced by electrospinning. In this study, PCL was mixed with HA to synthesise nanofibres by single nozzle electrospinning. Furthermore, PCL-HA nanofibres were mixed with fibronectin to investigate the effect of adhesion of fibronectin to the surface of the PCL-HA nanofibres. The structure and morphology of nanofibres were determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), the chemical properties of nanofibres were analysed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and the diameter and adhesive force of nanofibers and fibronectin were determined by an atomic force microscope (AFM). The SEM examination revealed the formation of cylindrical and smooth nanofibres with dense fibre networks when 10% HA was used, as HA can generate fibre. FTIR analysis indicated the presence of PCL and HA inside the nanofibres produced by electrospinning. The AFM examination showed that the PCL-HA nanofibres with 100 µg/ml of fibronectin gives the highest adhesion force which is important for the scaffold to resist the force from the external environment. This outcome resulted indicates that the PCL-HA nanofibers with fibronectin are promising for tissue engineering scaffold application. Hence, further investigations are needed to ensure the compatibility of living cells to survive and grow on the PCL-HA nanofibrous mats.
Keywords: Electrospinning; nanofibres; polycaprolactone; hydroxyapatite; tissue engineering
|17.||HARNESSING MULTI SOURCE POINT CLOUD TECHNOLOGY TO OVERCOME HIGH RESOLUTION BUILDING INFORMATION MODELING OF MANGANTI DAM, INDONESIA: A PRELIMINARY RESULT
Sadikin Hendriatiningsih, Ratri Widyastuti, Asep Yusup Saptari, Andri Harpiandi, Hendy F. Suhandri* & Nasradeen A. Khalifa
Building Information Modelling (BIM) is a technology involving the generation and management of digital information of physical and functional characteristics of places (in 2D or 3D), which is developed to obtain built assets, planning, construction maintenance and operation, and construction management system. This case study is BIM development for the Manganti dam, located in Central Java, Indonesia. The dam itself is a vital irrigation system and is located in an earthquake-prone area, which makes significant risk factors for the surrounding environment. Therefore, continuous monitoring for the dam should be taken seriously into action by acquiring accurate information. Supporting that purpose, the spatial information of the dam, in 3D form, should be accurately presented in the mapping process. Although the Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS) is well known for providing accurate geometry information, its information detail is still limited to an accessible area. Consequently, it creates gaps in shadow areas which possibly can be compensated by the data from Handheld Laser Scanner (HLS). In this contribution, we are focusing on analyzing the reliability of TLS and HLS combination for high-resolution mapping and, possibly, high accuracy mapping. The geometric accuracy of the 3D model is comparing the dimension of the model to the dimension measurement by the Electronic Total Station (ETS) measurement.
Keywords: Building Information Modeling (BIM); management of digital information; Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS); Handheld Laser Scanner (HLS); high-resolution mapping; high accuracy mapping
|18.||SAFETY LEVELS AND OCCUPANT INJURY RISK FOR LIGHT COMMERCIAL VEHICLES IN THE ASEAN REGION: RESULTS OF CRASHWORTHINESS DATA
Mohd Hafiz Johari*, Khairil Anwar Abu Kassim, Yahaya Ahmad, Najihah Wahi, Nor Kamaliana Khamis, Mohd Radzi Abu Mansor
The logistics industry in Malaysia has greatly evolved in recent years. With regard to the freight industry, business operations depend on transportation service using commercial vehicles to deliver products in a timely manner. Technically categorised as N1 vehicle, the Light Commercial Vehicle (LCV) or light duty truck is designed to carry goods with maximum load not exceeding 3.5 tons. To maximize cargo size, the occupant cabin space has been pushed forward, hence, becoming a ‘flat head type’ vehicle. Nevertheless, the flat head vehicle fared poorly in terms of its crashworthiness performance during a frontal collision. In the ASEAN region, the automotive market for LCVs or the ‘People Mover’ trails behind passenger cars (M1 category) from the safety aspect where most small lorries or panel vans are sold with the lowest safety standards due to undemanding requirements and regulations imposed on this vehicle category. To examine the current issue surrounding this vehicles category in ASEAN, this paper shall discuss 1) the results of crashworthiness data for LCVs based on the assessment conducted by ASEAN NCAP and Japan NCAP and 2) review the leg injury analysis involving five LCVs tested by ASEAN NCAP. The vehicles with the worst performance for both NCAPs were compared, namely the TATA Super Ace (ASEAN NCAP) which came with no safety features, and the Daihatsu Hijet Cargo DX (Japan NCAP) which was equipped with ABS, airbag for both driver and front passenger, seatbelt pretensioner for driver and front passenger, as well as seatbelt load limiter for the driver and front passenger. The results showed that the driver and front passenger of the TATA Super Ace sustained very serious lower extremity, chest, and head injuries compared to Japan NCAP’s low performing LCV. In addition, five LCV models (TATA Super Ace, Chana Era Star II, DFSK V25L, Suzuki Carry, and Cherry Transcab) were tested by ASEAN NCAP without the fitment of any protection to the driver and front passenger during frontal crashes. As a result, the occupants, especially the driver, faced a very high risk of sustaining serious lower extremity, chest, and head injuries. The crash test results led to all five LCV models tested being awarded zero-star safety rating. The injury analysis also proved that the driver fatality was greatly affected by severe injuries, or AIS 3+ in the head, lower extremity and chest. It can be concluded that the safety of LCVs in ASEAN is a cause for serious concern where improvements are urgently needed to ensure that this vehicle category is equipped with sufficient safety features.
Keywords: Commercial Vehicle; LCV; crashworthiness; ASEAN NCAP
|19.||EFFECTS OF ANTHROPOMETRIC TOWARDS INTERFACE PRESSURE VARIABLES AND DESIGN OPTIMIZATION ON THE CAR SEAT
Nabilah Sabri*, Nor Kamaliana Khamis, Chun Tee Ng, Mohd Faizal Mat Tahir & Jailani Besar
The design optimisation of car seats is vital in ensuring comfort and safety whilst driving. The main aim of this study is to determine the relationship between anthropometric parameters, interface pressure on car seats and driver’s safety in a preferred driving position. A pressure-map sensor was used to identify the pressure patterns on the car seat. Results indicate significant relationships were found between interface pressure of car seat and certain anthropometrics dimension. A strong correlation was established amongst body mass, body mass index and interface pressure at certain body parts, with r of nearly 0.50. Majority of the anthropometric dimensions and interface pressure show medium correlations between 0.31 and 0.49. The established relationship helps to estimate the perceived comfort and safety related to the car seat design. Hence, this guideline can help to prevent driver’s fatigue by considering the elements of anthropometrics and interface pressure in the car seat design.
Keywords: Anthropometric; pressure; design; car seat; comfort
|20.||EVALUATING PARKING CHARACTERISTICS OF PARK-AND-RIDE FACILITY AT GOMBAK LRT TERMINAL STATION
Abdul Azeez Kadar Hamsa*, Nur Aina Syafiqah Akmal & Zurin Hafika Zolkpeli
Malaysia has been experiencing a rapid increase in the number of private vehicles each year. This has increased in the use of private vehicles for various trip purposes especially work trips. Park-and-ride (PnR) is one of the travel demand management measures that would help to reduce traffic congestion and sustain urban mobility. The success of a park-and-ride facility, however, depends on many factors besides parking characteristics at the public transit stations. This paper evaluates the parking characteristics at one of the rail-based PnR stations of an LRT line. The parking characteristics at the selected rail station were evaluated by applying both a parking utilization survey and a pre-designed questionnaire survey. The parking utilization survey was administered by targeting all the parking spaces at each level of the parking building and a questionnaire survey by targeting a pre-determined sample of parking users. A total of 295 questionnaires were proportionately distributed to the parking users at each level of the PnR facility. The analysis reveals maximum utilization of the parking facility especially during morning and late afternoon hours representing a high proportion of work trip commuters. This finding was well supported when compared with the results from the questionnaire data analysis. There were no clear differences in the parking characteristics between the findings of this study and that of other studies. However, the parking behavior and the pattern of the parkers differ conspicuously from that of other studies. A few recommendations were drawn to overcome the unavailability of parking spaces.
Keywords: Park and ride; parking characteristic; parking demand; parking users; parking utilization survey; parking questionnaire survey
|21.||INVESTIGATION OF EFFECT OF BAKELITE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HOT MIX ASPHALT MIXES – A FULL FACTORIAL DESIGN EXPERIMENT
Yousaf Ali, Muhammad Hussain*, Kashif Riaz, Adnan Yousaf, Rana Faisal Tufail, Yogeshwar V Navandar, Ashraf Mahmud Rayed & Syed Mustafa Ali Shah
In Pakistan, mostly flexible pavements are constructed which have a higher susceptibility to rutting, moisture damage and stripping. Under current economic conditions, one such solution to overcome this is the addition of economical and locally available additives in the bitumen being produced by our refineries. This study investigates the effects of bakelite as an additive on various mechanical properties. Bakelite is a high-density plastic, cost-effective and locally available material. The modified Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) specimens were prepared with (2%,4%,6%,8%,10%,12%) Bakelite by weight of optimum binder content found using Marshall Mix design. Performance tests, including Marshall Stability and flow. Retained stability and Resilient Modulus tests were performed to check the performance of modified mixes. The test results revealed that a modified mix containing 6% Bakelite by weight of optimum bitumen content provides the best resistance against moisture damage, rutting and enhancing the HMA mix’s stability than the other modifier percentages. The Marshall stability and quotient values of the modified mix increased by almost 22% and 44% respectively. The results showed an increase of 3.5% in the tensile strength ratio indicating an increase in the capability of HMA to resist moisture-induced damage and strength retention. The resilient modulus test was then performed under different conditions, i.e., bakelite (0% & 6%), temperature (25˚C &40˚C) and load duration (100 ms & 300 ms) and analyzed by full factorial design experiment. The factorial analysis showed that Bakelite content is the most significant factor affecting the MR and, ultimately, the strength of the HMA mix. The Resilient modulus test results showed a 20% increase for the modified mix containing 6% Bakelite as compared to the conventional mix. Therefore, it is concluded that the addition of bakelite as an additive in hot mix asphalt mixes gives better results regarding pavement performance.
Keywords: Hot mix asphalt; pavements; bakelite; rutting; bitumen
|22.||PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT THROUGH VALUE STREAM MAPPING – A MANUFACTURING CASE STUDY
Salman Abubakar Bugvi*, Khurram Hameed, M. Fawad Jamil, Ali Irfana, Shahid Murtaza, Muhammad Qaiser & Muhammad Bilal
The successfulness of Value Stream Mapping (VSM) as a tool for taking a snapshot of the production flow efficiency is well established. The development of a large-scale visual map of processes and their interactions is beneficial for problem analysis and subsequent solution. Through VSM, managers gain a deeper understanding of the organization processes carried out in coordination with people in a system approach. A case study was conducted at a Small and Medium Enterprise (SME) in Pakistan which manufactures ceiling fan winding machines. The aim of this study was to explore the possibilities of shortening the lead-time, waste and highlight important strategies, steps which could be undertaken by management for improvement in productivity, cost and quality. The study maps the organization systematically through the use of VSM. The Lean Implementation Techniques (LIT) steps were followed with identification of value stream process, lean metrics, mapping of current state and proposing an improved future state value stream map. The intervention suggested is layout modification by reducing 7 stations to 6 stations and streamlining the operations. The layout modification results in lower defects, controlling overproduction, managing inventory buffers from a linear approach to an optimized level. This also resulted in reduction of processing time of each unit by around 19 % and the production lead time of 100 units by around 21%. This study through VSM proposes improvement by enforcing pull system, supplier relations, modifying layout and production processes, Just in Time (JIT) delivery of materials and parts, scheduling transport resources efficiently and reducing inventory buffers.
Keywords: Lean manufacturing; Value Stream Mapping (VSM); production flow; waste; productivity
|23.||A SURVEY ON COST EFFECTIVE OPTICAL NETWORK UNIT CONFIGURATIONS
Ibrahim M M Mohamed
The technology of Wavelength division multiplexing-Passive optical networks WDM-PONs is basically developed based on the approach of broadcast-and-select in which an identical aggregation of wavelengths is directed to different destinations using a power splitter. Later, it was developed based on the approach of wavelength routing in which an aggregation of wavelengths is separated and directed in such a way that each individual wavelength in the aggregation can reach a specific destination using an arrayed waveguide grating (AWGs). It is one of the highly nominated technologies for next-generation optical access network NG-OAN. This is due to its ability to overcome the limitation imposed in the currently standardized TDM-PONs (E-PON, G-PON, 10G-EPON, and XG-PON), such as their shared-traffic nature and allowable power budget. However, the inventory of wavelength-specific transmitters needed in this technology especially at subscriber premises (i.e. optical network unit ONU) where cost is most sensitive, and their associated operation, administration, and management costs remains a major issue that needs to be settled before widespread commercial success can be achieved. This attracts many researchers to concentrate their efforts to develop a cost-effective ONU. Many proposals were found in the literature that aims to realize this desirable goal with most of them agreed up on that it can be achieved by enabling ONU mass production. They also agreed up on that enabling the ONU mass production can only be achieved by unifying its design. In this paper, the author provides a review of various state-of-the-art configurations, proposed to unify the ONU design.
Keywords: Wavelength division multiplexing WDM; optical network unit ONU; Time division multiplexing-passive optical networks TDM-PONs; Fiber-to-the-home FTTH; Passive optical networks PON
|24.||KESAN PENYUSUPAN DAN ALIRAN MASUK TERHADAP KEKUATAN AIR SISA KUMBAHAN PERBANDARAN
Nur Aina Bachi’, Syarifah Amirah Huda Syed Mohd Fuat, Huzaifah Ahmad Hisam, Zarimah M Hanafiah, Ibrahiem Al-Ani, Lavaniya Panirselvam, M Zuraimi Abdullah, Nor Azura Abdullah & Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar
Inflows and infiltrations are a common phenomenon in the sewerage system in our country. This is due to weather factors and high rainfall distribution in Malaysia. Therefore, infiltration rates are also expected to be high through manholes. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of infiltration and inflow on wastewater strength from municipal areas with a population of 1000 PE. Modeling using the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) software is used to determine the rate of infiltration and inflow of rainwater into sewers as well as the rate of decay of pollutant loads such as Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) and Ammonia (NH3) in a sewer system involving 17 manholes. The results in this modeling are the infiltration rate for each catchment area and the decay rate of the total pollutant load. As for the infiltration rate, the catchment area is divided into three, namely S1, S2 and S3, where S1 contains the lowest amount of infiltration compared to S2 and S3 which is 1.27 mm/h for 10%, 1.36 mm/h for 15% and 1.45 mm/h for 20%. In addition, the total pollutant load produced for the 12 hours of simulation conducted for COD is 160-180 kg with a total decay occurring around 0.10-0.29% while Ammonia produces a pollutant load of 140-160 kg with a consistent decay rate and does not give substantial reduction to Ammonia. The results show that the infiltration that occurs does not affect the velocity of wastewater but affects the strength of wastewater which can cause the concentration of wastewater to decrease.
Keywords: Inflow; infiltration; SWMM modeling; strength of wastewater; decay rate
|25.||IMPROVEMENT IN CORROSION RESISTANCE OF MAGNESIUM-ALUMINUM ALLOY VIA FRICTION STIR PROCESSING
Minal S. Dani*, I.B. Dave & Alphonsa Joseph
Friction stir processing was done for surface modification of cast Magnesium-Aluminum alloy. The microstructural characteristics related to different phases of untreated cast Magnesium-Aluminum alloy, friction stir processed under different process parameters like rotational speeds at 380rpm and 545 rpm with 31.5 mm/min transverse speed with and without pure aluminum powder were investigated by Metallurgical microscopy at lower magnification and scanning electron microscopy at higher magnification. Pure aluminum powder of fine size (~19µm) was filled in the groove made at the center of the Magnesium-Aluminum alloy plate which cover 33 vol% of pure aluminum during friction stir processing. The electrochemical behavior of the Magnesium-Aluminum alloy, Friction stir processed Magnesium-Aluminum alloy without aluminum powder and Friction stir processed Magnesium-Aluminum alloy with pure aluminum powder were investigated using Potentiostat in 5 wt % sodium chloride (NaCl) solution.Surface of all conditions specimens were analyzed for the phases present on the surface by X-Ray Diffractometer (XRD) which revealed different peaks of α-Mg phase, β-phases (Mg17Al12) and Pure Aluminum . In friction stir processed Magnesium-Aluminum alloy double pass with aluminum powder all these peaks were observed. The electrochemical corrosion tests revealed the least corrosion rate (0.603 X 102mpy) for friction stir processed double pass with aluminum powder amongst all the tested specimens. The improvement in corrosion resistance of friction stir processed double pass with aluminum powder is because of more formations of the β-phases (Mg17Al12) and aluminum dissolved in the α-Mg phase.
Keywords: Magnesium-aluminum alloy, surface modification, friction stir processing, electro chemical corrosion, β-phases (Mg17Al12)
|26.||INTER-SUBJECT REGISTRATION-BASED SEGMENTATION OF THORACIC-ABDOMINAL ORGANS IN 4 DIMENSIONAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING
Ehsan Golkar, Hossein Rabbani & Ashrani Aizzuddin Abd. Rahni
4 Dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (4D MRI) is currently gaining attention as an imaging modality which is able to capture inter-cycle variability of respiratory motion. Such information is beneficial for example in radiotherapy planning and delivery. In the latter case, there may be a need for organ segmentation, however 4D MRI are of low contrast, which complicates automated organ segmentation. This paper proposes a multi-subject thoracic-abdominal organ segmentation propagation scheme for 4D MRI. The proposed scheme is registration based, hence different combinations of deformation and similarity measures are used. For deformation we used either just an affine transformation or additionally free form deformation on top of an affine transform. For similarity measure, either the sum of squared intensity differences or normalised mutual information is used. Segmentations from multiple subjects are registered to a target MRI and the average segmentation is found. The result of the method is compared with the ground truth which is generated from a semi-automated segmentation method. The results are quantified using the Jaccard index and Hausdorff distance. The results show that using free form deformation with a sum of squared intensity differences similarity measure produces an acceptable segmentation of the organs with an overall Jaccard index of over 0.5. Hence, the proposed scheme can be used as a basis for automated organ segmentation in 4D MRI.
Keywords: Segmentation propagation; image registration; 4D; MRI
|27.||PELAKSANAAN ALGORITMA PENDEBUNGAAN BUNGA UNTUK MENYELESAIKAN MASALAH PENGHANTARAN EKONOMI DALAM SISTEM KUASA
Nur Fariza Ramli, Nor Azwan Mohamed Kamari*, Syahirah Abd Halim, Asrul Ibrahim & Ismail Musirin
This study presents the efficiency of the Flower Pollination Algorithm (FPA) in solving economic dispatch. The best economic dispatch for a power system is that the system can generate energy at low generation costs. The calculation of the generating cost is subject to a number of constraints, such as the power demand for the entire system and the generation limit for each generator unit in the system. In addition, the system should also produce low power loss to reduce the impact of greenhouse gas emission. FPA optimization technique is developed based on the transfer of pollen from one flower to another on the same tree or another tree using natural pollinators such as honey bees, birds, water, or wind. Among the advantages of FPA over other techniques are simplicity in computational formulas and fast search simulation time. The proposed algorithm has been implemented in two systems namely IEEE 9 bus 3 generator system and IEEE 30 bus 6 generator. Both of these systems were tested in a Matlab environment. To highlight the capabilities of FPA, the results using this proposed technique are compared with the Moth Flame Algorithm (MFA) technique to determine the efficiency of the proposed approach in solving economic dispatch. MFA is an optimization technique that has been widely used in finding optimal results, especially in engineering research. The simulation results show that FPA performs better than MFA in determining the optimal power generation value with minimum generation cost and low rate of power loss.
Keywords: Economic dispatch; flower pollination algorithm; moth flame algorithm
|28.||ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL FOR THE THERMOELECTRIC THERAPY DEVICE
Khairul Nisa binti Hamdan* & Afida Ayob
Cryotherapy is one of most popular treatments for treating injuries using cold applications due to various advantages that have been accepted by medical professionals like safe to use and able to reduce pain and inflammation if the treatment is given according to medical specifications. The existing devices in the market such as cryo-cuff will become more efficient if it is capable to control important parameter like cooling temperature during the treatment. Therefore, a study of the therapeutic device control system using thermoelectric module was carried out. This system is based on microcontroller Arduino which makes it convenient for the users to control the gel temperature during the treatment. The aim of the study is to design a cooling therapy device using thermoelectric module for cryotherapy, to design a system that can control temperature and to develop a prototype that can control the desired temperature of gel using Arduino. This prototype uses thermoelectric-cooler (TEC) which will convert electric energy to temperature difference on both sides of the TEC. The PID controller is implemented in the coding of Arduino to obtain a constant gel temperature. In conclusion, the prototype is able to control the temperature reading consistently. In this study, when the temperature is set to 8°C by the Arduino, the result shows the average temperature reading is 8.668°C. Thus, it can be concluded that this thermoelectric therapy device can control the gel temperature set by the user.
Keywords: Cryotherapy; Thermoelectric-cooler (TEC); Arduino UNO; temperature of gel; PID controller
|29.||PERCEPTION OF IEQ FACTORS ON WORKPLACE SATISFACTION USING KANO SATISFACTION MODEL: A CASE STUDY OF MALLS IN HOT-HUMID CLIMATE
Ibiyeye Aminat Idowu*, Mohd Fakri Zaky Ja’afar, Zalina Shari, Nur Dalilah Dahlan & Kasham J. Shamang
This study reveals retailers’ perception of and their preference to some selected IEQ factors in relation to their workplace. Retailers of two types of malls (mixed-mode ventilated and Air conditioned malls) were studied under the following objectives: 1) To determine the retailers’ perception of some IEQ factors in each mall, and 2) To develop a pattern of the impact of retailers’ perception of some IEQ factors on their overall workplace satisfaction using the Kano satisfaction model. A subjective IEQ measurement was carried out and descriptive analysis was done on retailers’ responses to reveal their level of satisfaction after which a regression analysis was carried out on their perception of some IEQ factors. The results revealed that the air-conditioned ventilated mall recorded the highest mean satisfaction votes. Results also indicated that retailers in the mixed-mode ventilated malls considered air movement within their workplace as a necessity as the negative influence has a greater impact (regression coefficient 3.35*, -4.29*) on overall satisfaction. However, the absolute magnitude of the impact between satisfied and dissatisfied groups is not significantly different, thus, ‘air movement’ in the mixed-mode ventilated malls is categorized as proportional factor. Whereas, retailers in the AC mall responded to satisfactory air movement as something not expected (regression coefficient 3.27**, -2.19NS). On the other hand, retailers in the AC mall expected a controlled environment like theirs to thermally satisfy its occupants. Findings from this study will provide a better understanding of workers’ expectations and concerns with regard to their indoor environmental conditions.
Keywords: Hot-humid climate; Kano’s satisfaction model; mixed-mode ventilated malls; retailers’ perception; thermal comfort
|30.||BONDING STABILITY OF A NOVEL NANO-ZIRCONIA AND COMMERCIAL VENEERING CERAMICS
Ahlam Almoualimy, Yew Hsu Zenn*, Jasmina Qamaruz Zaman, Norziha Yahaya & Andanastuti Muchta
Nano-zirconia is commonly used in dentistry as a framework material over which feldspathic porcelain is layered to form an aesthetic and strong bi-layered restoration. Sufficient bonding strength between zirconia frameworks and veneering porcelains is crucial for the longevity of zirconia-based dental restorations. This study aims to determine the shear bond strength (SBS) of a colloidal-processed slip-casted novel nano-zirconia (NZ) and veneering ceramics, namely Cercon® Ceram Kiss (CK), VITA VM®9 (VM9), and IPS e.max® Ceram (e. max). Twenty-four cylindrical samples of each NZ and CZ were prepared and veneered with the veneering ceramics. Six groups of core–veneer assemblies, which are denoted as NZ-CK, NZ-VM9, NZ-e. max, CZ-CK, CZ-VM9, and CZ-e. max, were prepared for shear bond testing using the universal testing machine. Results of the shear test showed that NZ-VM9 recorded the highest shear strength value of 149.48 MPa, whereas NZ e. max showed the lowest SBS value of 71.56 MPa. A similar trend was also observed in the CZ groups, with the highest mean bonding strength (123.38 MPa) when bonded to VM9 (CZ-VM9), while the lowest mean value (44.07 MPa) was registered by the CZ-e. max groups. Scanning electron micrographs revealed that groups with high core–veneer bond strength values mostly displayed cohesive failure. By contrast, a mixed-mode of adhesive and cohesive failures was observed in the low SBS groups. The NZ showed similar performance based on the bonding property analysis. Therefore, NZ could potentially be used as an alternative to CZ.
Keywords: Nano-zirconia; veneering porcelain; slip-casting; colloidal processing; bond strength
|31.||ARTIFICIAL BEE COLONY ALGORITHM WITH PROPOSED DISCRETE NEAREST NEIGHBORHOOD ALGORITHM FOR DISCRETE OPTIMIZATION PROBLEMS
Amir Masoud Rahimi & Ehsan Ramezani-Khansari*
Travelling salesman problem (TSP) is one the problems of NP-complete family, which means finding shortest complete close tour in the graph. This study seeks to solve this problem using Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) Algorithm along with the proposed Discrete Nearest Neighborhood Algorithm (DNNA). DNNA finds shortest path among points by starting from an arbitrary point. In next steps this links will be a guide to make complete tour. In other words the links in partial tours have higher chance to be in the final solution. In order to improve the final solutions of a single created tour, The employee bees’ movement radius has been limited, because of avoidance of long random jump between nodes. To reduce the optimization time of the tours created by the artificial bee colony algorithm, the fixed-radius near neighbor 2-opt algorithm was used as well. In addition, 2 types of scout bee were used for to intensify the probability property of the algorithm. Also, convergence in the probability function of employee bees’ movement was prevented by increasing the number of route-creating tours. The first scout bee applies the proposed DNNA and the secondary scout bee improves the partial tours of employee bees in a probable way. Although Althought the average error of proposed ABC algorithm has been 0.371% higher than best solution of all methods, it could improve the solution of 3 problems with average of 3.305%. The proposed algorithm has been better than basic ABC in all tested problems with average of 0.570%.
Keywords: Optimization; artificial bee colony; traveling salesman problem; vehicle routing
|32.||EXTRACTION OF PROTEIN FROM MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES FOR FACIAL MASK PRODUCTION
Shahidah Irsalina Mustafa Kamal Israk, Norliza Abd Rahman*, Mohd Nazri Fuad & Jarinah Mohd Alia
The use of facial mask is spreading wide all around the world due to its health benefits in skincare. There are many cases of cosmetic or beauty products containing ingredients that are not suitable for the skin where the pH reading increases or decreases due to either too acidic or alkaline. This research is conducted in order to determine the protein content in Moringa oleifera leaves and skincare product for the production of halal-certified facial mask. The extraction and determination of protein content are conducted using salting-out method with ammonium sulfate and by Bradford assay method. The extraction of protein from the leaves is done by using different weight of leaves, whereby the results for all samples are compared. This research is also conducted to produce a facial mask from the extracted protein from Moringa oleifera leaves using a suitable and the best formulation. Randomly selected respondents were asked to fill out a questionnaire to assist in this study. The survey was conducted using the ‘Google Form’ application as a platform. The formulated facial mask and the facial mask available in the market are then taken for a few parameter analyses. Final results showed the average protein content percentage in Moringa oleifera leaves is 33.33% and 16.67% in facial mask. The pH value for Moringa oleifera leaves is recorded to be in the range of pH 5.0- 6.0. The pH value for Moringa oleifera leaves is pH 5.01 and pH 5.29 for facial mask. A total of 45 respondents participated in the questionnaire analysis and 91.1% of them were women. A total of 68.9% were facial beauty masks users.
Keywords: Moringa oleifera; protein extraction; facial mask; toxicity analysis; quantitative analysis
|33.||DATA COLLISION AND INTERFERENCE MINIMIZATION IN WIRELESS SENSOR NETWORK USING NODE DATA ADDRESSING WITH RANDOM ACCESS TIME
Nurulidayu Sainuddin*, Juwita Mohd Sultan, Fakrulradzi Idris & Mohd Azuani
A wireless sensor network (WSN) refers to a spatially dispersed network of sensors that monitor and collect environmental data and forward the collected data to the central station. WSN has been widely used in daily life and industrial applications, ranging from surveillance, military, healthcare, habitat monitoring, and agriculture application. However, WSN that uses radiofrequency (RF) communication may suffer from noise and interference caused by two or more radios that uses the same frequency. Data collision is also expected within the wireless network especially when numerous sensor nodes are transmitting their data to the base station (BS) through a shared medium. Hence, this research contributes in mitigating the RF interference and data collision in the network to increase the network’s data reliability by using the concept of Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) protocol where each sensor node will be transmitting their data at a different time to avoid collision and interference in the shared medium. However, in this research, each sensor node will access the channel or the transmission medium at a random time. To prove the concept of the proposed method on data collision and interference minimization, an Internet of Things (IoT) based wireless sensor network for alerting application will be designed and implemented in the fire station. It has been found from the experimental result that RF interference and data reliability in the network can be reduced by 90% with the proposed algorithm by allowing the sensor node to access the RF channel and transmit the data at a random time.
Keywords: Wireless sensor network; RF interference; data collision; packet loss, random access time
|34.||A COMBINATORIAL RGB AND DEPTH IMAGES CNN-BASED MODEL FOR OIL PALM FRUIT BUNCH DETECTION AND HEATMAP LOCALISATION FOR A VISUAL SLAM SYSTEM
Chua Zheng Siong, Mohd Faisal Ibrahim*, Aqilah Baseri Huddin, Mohd Hairi Mohd Zaman & Fazida Hanim Hashim
The harvesting job of cutting and collecting fruit bunches in oil palm plantations remains the most labour-intensive job in the oil palm processing cycle. The introduction of an autonomous vehicle to assist workers in the harvesting job promises better productivity. Such a driverless vehicle requires a software module known as simultaneous localisation and mapping (SLAM) to guide the vehicle to navigate autonomously. This work proposes a visual SLAM system with a distinctive capability of detecting and localising oil palm loose fresh fruit bunches (FFB) on the ground using intelligent image processing. This vehicle is equipped with a depth camera capable of capturing RGB images and depth images concurrently. Two VGG16-based convolutional neural network (CNN) models are trained using the acquired RGB and depth images dataset of loose FFBs on the ground. The output from the combinatorial FFB detection model is then fed into a visual SLAM system called RTAB-Map. By combining the FFB detection model and the visual SLAM system, the vehicle can plan for autonomous navigation safely, perform bunch pick-up tasks, and avoid collision with fruit bunches on the ground. The experiment results show that the proposed CNN model can detect and localise loose FFBs with significant accuracy in various lighting conditions.
Keywords: Oil palm fruit bunch detection; deep learning model; convolutional neural network; visual SLAM; depth camera object detection.
|35.||FINITE ELEMENT MODELLING OF CFRP WRAPPED CONCRETE SPECIMENS SUBJECTED TO LOCALISED AXIAL COMPRESSION
Jasim Ali Abdullah
The strengthening and rehabilitation of reinforced concrete structures using Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) wrapping is most common. Recently, this method was used in the rehabilitation of deteriorated reinforced concrete columns, the pier of girder bridges and corbels that are subjected to localised axial compression. The numerical simulation which is verified by experimental works minimizes the time and cost to get the internal behaviours of structures. This study is an attempt to numerically investigate the performance of CFRP wrapped concrete specimens subjected to localised compressive loading conditions. The finite element modelling by ABAQUS software was used in the simulation of adopted specimens in this study. The FEM results show good agreement with the experimental data. The performance of adopted specimens and the behaviour of the concrete core and CFRP wrapping were extensively studied. The FEM results indicated that the CFRP wrapping improves the load carrying capacity and increases the dissipation of energy by increasing the deformation capacity and subsequently the wrapped specimens behave more ductile. The fully wrapped cylinder subjected to a smaller area of loading exhibits higher capacity (119%) of exposed specimen, while the wrapped cube subjected to area of loading (size:75 mm) exhibits higher load carrying capacity about(52%) than the exposed cube.
Keywords: CFRP Wrapping; Finite Element Modelling; Localised Axial Compression; Strengthening and Rehabilitation; Concrete Confinement.