Jurnal Kejuruteraan

 Journal of Engineering

Volume 34(02) 2022

Table of Contents

Front Page

No. Article Page  
1. Successful Approaches to Integrated Water Resources Management: A Mini Review

Zuriyati Yusof & Noor Aida Saad

River basins must be handled in a comprehensive and integrated way. To achieve that, Integrated River Basin Management (IRBM) is a strong concept that will increasingly win discussions on natural resource management. IRBM focuses on the integration and coordination of policies, programs and practices. It focuses on problems relating to water and rivers. It advocates for improved skills and increased financial, legislative, management and political will. Many developed countries have expanded strongly functional and stable institutions for IRBM. These structural models have developed through the years, and are being gradually imposed and encouraged by policymakers and funders in developing countries. The main goal of this research is to identify and combine the main goals, concepts, effective practice examples and lesson learned of Integrated River Basin Management that emerged from the best practices management of River Thames in United Kingdom, European Unions’ Water Framework Directive, IWRM Canada and Malaysia. This research’s methodological approach compares the implementation structure of IWRM in four countries. The countries were chosen based on their numerous efforts in the field of water resource management. This is a practical water management framework focused on a holistic view of society’s goals integrated into good governance and sustainable development concepts. It also explains the advantages of expanding the idea behind IWRM core concepts.

Keywords : Integrated water resources management; sustainable management; water resources, water governance

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-01
2. A New Perspective on the Relationship Between the Construction Industry Performance and The Economy Outcome- A Literature Review

Zaid Mohammed Hatem, Mukhtar A. Kassem, Kherun Nita Ali & Muhamad Azry Khoiry

The attempts to analyze the relationship between the construction industry and economic growth have integrated many different methods. The process has become to be perceived as “construction economics” analysis. It is conceptualized as a procedure where construction industries outcomes implement increasingly more relevant for nation’s development benefits throughout mostly economic interdependencies that are emphasized as financial sources. Concurring with the present-day standards for affirming an industry, in considerably most facets of analysis result interpreted on a solely economic aspect which is not a conspicuous and significant indicator for construction industry initiates through its resolution outcome. Whereas proceed competently and developed directions from scholars or experts are the determinants of success that emerge due to reviews of relevant practical and research inferences. Literature for analysis on output in the construction industry within the economics aspect is further inscribed in detail. Consequently, relocating the ideology used to examine construction activates implications on development augmentation and shifts the schemes for classifying construction output in the numerous conservative analytic techniques towards more functional delineation. Considering and optimize more relevant details in the systematic process of quantifying the construction value analysis will implicate a reflected actual and detailed results of industrial or enterprise entities on both theoretical and empirical perception for construction economics.

Keywords: Construction industry; performance; economy outcome; infrastructure impact

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-02
3. Systematic Review on Research Trends on Sensor-Based Leak Detection Methods in Water Distribution Systems

Talhah Mohamad Shirajuddin, Nur Shazwani Muhammad & Jazuri Abdullah
Abstrak Bahasa Melayu

A substantial amount of treated water is lost every year due to leakages in water distribution systems. Leakages can be identified and reduced using leakage detection methods, which can be broadly split into computer-based and sensor-based methods. This systematic review focuses on trends in sensor-based leakage detection methods published between 2000 and 2019, following the methodology proposed by PRISMA 2009 (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses). We conducted a database search using Scopus, obtaining a total of 78 relevant article papers. We categorized the articles based on the primary leakage detection methods discussed, yielding 33 article papers on acoustic methods, 31 article papers on non-acoustic methods, and the remaining article papers on wireless sensor networks (WSN). The highest number of article papers were published in the “Journal of Sound and Vibration”. Between 2000 and 2007 we observed that acoustic leak detection methods were the most widely researched methods within the published literature. After 2008, non-acoustic leak detection methods became more prominent, subsequently followed by an increase in research focusing on WSNs. During the transition period between acoustic methods and WSNs, non-acoustic leak detection methods started to emerge, showing promising results in detecting leakages. Research interest in WSNs substantially increased in 2016. The application of WSN methods for leakage detection shows a promising advancement in sensor-based leakage detection methods and opportunities for improvement in the future.

Keywords: acoustic method, non-acoustic method, wireless sensor network, leakage detection, sensor-based, systematic review, water distribution system

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-03
4. Implimentasi Geometri BIM-GIS Terhadap Navigasi Pengguna bagi Persekitaran Dalaman: Satu Kajian

Implementation of BIM-GIS Geometry for User Navigation in the Indoor Environment: A Review

Syed Ahmad Fadhli Syed Abdul Rahman , Khairul Nizam Abdul Maulud, Sharifah Nurul Ain Syed Mustorpha, Sarah Shaharuddin & Adi Irfan Che Ani

The integration between Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Geographic Information System (GIS) is frequently discussed from time to time due to the benefits offered, especially for user navigation in the building’s indoor environment. Inequality in terms of 3D geometry and level of detail was identified as contributing to the difficulty in integrating the two models. Although there are limitations, various studies have been conducted to improve the method of integration so that the data can be utilised successfully. Therefore, this paper focuses on reviewing relevant research papers to (1) identify the basic information and structure of BIM and GIS models, (2) study the relationship and integration that occurs between the two types of models at the model geometry level, and (3) identify the application of the user navigation to the indoor building environment and highlight the future direction for the integration of BIM and GIS study. From this study, it can be identified that the standardised geometry schemes are the keys to the success of BIM and GIS integration. It can indirectly enhance the interoperability of data and helps in the development of a holistic data model for a broader scope of application. Particularly in the era of rapid development of machine learning, deep learning and internet of things (IoT) technology, where the application of integrated products through semantic web methods is seen to have an expansive room to grow significantly for location-based services (LBS) and emergency application.

Keywords: BIM; GIS; Integration; Building’s indoor environment

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-04
5. Residents’ Perception of Housing Quality Index for Dwellings’ Physical Characteristics in the Core Area of Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria

Sunday Samuel Omoniyi, Bashir Olufemi Odufuwa & Festus Osarumwense Uzzi

This study examines residents’ perception of housing quality index for dwellings’ physical characteristics in the core area Ado-Ekiti, Nigeria, South-west Nigeria. A survey of 602 households randomly selected from the core area was done. The results of the study revealed that more than half of the respondents indicated that the present condition of the dwellings components like (roofs, walls, windows, floors, foundations and fascia boards) in the study area was in a very bad state. Subsequently, housing quality index (H.Q.I) for the entire sample was evaluated and the housing quality indexes results were found to be below average (fair) using a five-point Likert scale, starting from very bad (rated as 1), fair (rated as 3) to very good (rated as 5) to calculate the total weighted values of all rated attributes and means values of rated attributes in the study area. Surveyed results have shown significant deterioration in quality of dwellings components in the core area, due to age of buildings and lack of maintenance. The study concluded that there is an urgent need to replace the bad dwellings components, build new structures, provides basic amenities like electricity, pipe-borne water, roads/drainages and to refurbish the existing ones to ensure that the residents do not lack all these amenities.

Keywords: Quality index; perception; dwelling; core; Ado-Ekiti

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-05
6. Effectiveness of Traffic Management at Kajang SILK Highway

Muhamad Razuhanafi Mat Yazid, Kamarudin Abu Taib, Rasyidah Solehah Mohd Fauzi, Nurul Aisyah Abdul Rashid & Mukhlis Nahriri Bastam

The traffic management centre is a place of operational monitoring and supervision activities at all highways under the Malaysian Highway Authority. The purpose of this centre is to help gather and disseminate information related to traffic to the users. The information presented by them is accurate and constantly updated from time to time. However, are highway users in Malaysia aware of the existence of this traffic management centre? How can traffic management centre help them to determine their travel times and fast routes especially during the festive seasons? Therefore, researchers have outlined some of the objectives to assist in obtaining information about this study. The main objective of this study is to measure the level of consumer awareness of the highway traffic management centre. In addition, the second objective of this study is to examine the factors causing traffic congestion. Besides, researchers also want to investigate the drivers’ attitudes during the congestion which will lead to an accident and congestion and thus propose measures to raise the level of awareness and measures that can be taken to reduce traffic congestion. The technique used to carry out this study is a fuzzy conjoint model. The questionnaire distributed will be administered by the researcher himself. The level of consumer awareness will be measured through the likert scale which uses fuzzy linguistic variables such as one to five scale (never, sometimes, uncertain, ever, always). This study is conducted on users who use the Kajang SILK highway through the Toll Plaza Sg. Ramal. At the end of the study, the researcher hoped that this study would help the authorities, especially the Malaysian Highway Authority and other management in improving the traffic management centre.

Keywords: Traffic management; awareness; congestion; highway; fuzzy conjoint model

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-06
7. Evaluation on Crack Pattern of Concrete Masonry Wall Column

Daliah Hasan, Prof Madya Ir Dr Sooi Took Kowng, Nabil Fikri Mohd Salleh, Mohd Samsudin Abdul Hamid & Adhilla Ainun Musir

In recent years, concrete masonry unit (CMU) structures have been widely used in rural areas of Malaysia. However, it was found to have a poor performance of masonry wall-column regarding to the failure and crack behaviour. This research work presents the investigation and study on the cracking behaviour of concrete masonry wall-column structure. The results from this study will provide a significant understanding of the crack and failure of local in-filled reinforced CMU wallcolumn. The experimental work involved investigating the failure and crack pattern of CMU wall-column under axial loads performance. The experimental outcomes outlined that reinforced CMU wall-column under axial loading it failed usually due to the cracking caused by a breakdown of the bond between the masonry blocks and the mortar. Therefore, cracking is not due to the tensile failure of the units themselves or of the mortar itself.

Keywords: Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU); wall-column; crack behaviour; axial forces

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-07
8. Investigation on Prestressed Concrete Sleeper (PCS) Subjected to Dynamic Loading on Site and Experimental Works

Mohd Ikmal Fazlan Rozli, Che Mohd Hilmi Safiuddin Che Mohd Jamaludin, Juhaizad Ahmad, Abdul Samad Abdul Rahman & Kay Dora Abd. Ghani

The purpose of the research was to study the condition of prestressed monoblock concrete sleeper (PMCS) under dynamic loading experimentally and through site investigation. From this research, the value of deflection base on acceleration of concrete sleepers have been obtained. This study showed the possible correlation and relation of the PCS deflection located under a railway track. This research includes experimentation process which includes experimental investigations for dynamic loading of prestressed concrete sleepers (PCS) were examined in terms of its capability to accommodate their own design capacity and the relationships between load and displacement happened within the concrete sleeper. This study will help the railway authorities to understand and take any maintenance action to their rail infrastructure. From experimental test, the highest deflection on KTMB and EPMI rail seat section is 1.35 mm and 1.04 mm respectively. From site investigation at KM20.75, the highest deflection occured is 5.993 mm which is lower compared to the highest deflection at KM26.25 with the value of 7.06 mm.

Keywords : PCS; KTMB; EPMI; Rainflow Cyclic; AS 1085.12; KM20.75; KM26.25

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-08
9. Effect of Dental Implant Micro-thread Designs on Stress Distribution In Bone-Implant Interface

S. C. Tan, I. Ibrahim, R. Daud & N. S. Kamarrudin

Dental implants have been used in replacing broken or damaged teeth. There are failures after the operation was done due to lack of primary stability. Through improving the design of the dental implant, primary stability can be achieved. The aim of the study is to analyse the stress distribution at bone-implant interface due to different micro-thread designs. Five types of two-dimension micro-thread shapes dental implant embedded in bone cube are modeled in ANSYS APDL R3. The microthread shapes are Straight, Square, V-shaped, Buttress and Reverse Buttress. The models are meshed using element Quad 8-node 183. 106.066N of horizontal force and vertical force are applied on each model to find out the stress distribution pattern and peak Von Mises stress. The study found that micro-thread shapes changed the stress distribution on implant and bone. The peak Von Mises stress was located at the first micro-thread. Cortical bone took large portion of stress compared to cancellous bone. Square micro-thread has the best stress distribution pattern.

Keywords: Dental implant; micro-thread; thread; finite element analysis; stress distribution

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-09
10. Structural Displacement of Prestressed Concrete Sleepers Subjected to Six Coaches Commuter Load at Pinang Tunggal and Kobah

Mashita Harun, Mohd Ikmal Fazlan Rozli, Kay Dora Abd Ghani & Norliyati Md.Amin

Nowadays, train is one of an effective transportation in Malaysia. Commuter started the operation at Central Region had extended the operation at Northern Region in 2015.Since the volume of passengers were increasing every year, it caused railway track need to be maintenance frequently due to the displacement of concrete sleeper on railway track. According KTMB representative, the displacement happened depend on the soil condition. However, this study figured out the structural displacement concrete sleeper under different of soil condition. A site investigation had been carried out along railway track from Butterworth to Alor Setar. In this study had selected Pinang Tunggal the subsoil condition silty sand in category which displacement 7.40mm and Kobah the subsoil condition under soft clay, the displacement 0.15mm accordingly. The tools that had been used in this site investigation such as vibrator machine and piezometer. The captured records transferred to software called as Dewesoft to measure the displacement of concrete sleeper. From the result had been plotted on the graph showed sandy silt had shown the highest displacement compared with the soil condition soft clay. Therefore, the roof cause of displacement of concrete sleeper at railway track may cause the water table in the subsoil. This study would assist the authority to plan the maintenance on railway track.

Keywords: Dynamics; prestressed concrete; railway; sleeper; dewesof

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-10
11. Pharmaceutical Compounds in Malaysian Urban Domestic Wastewater

Zarimah Mohd Hanafiah, Wan Hanna Melini Wan Mohtar, Nur Aina Bachi’, Haris Hafizal Abd Hamid, Teh Sabariah Abd Manan & Antonius Indarto

The emerging contaminants (ECs) is detected at trace concentration in the discharge of sewage treatment plant (STP) to the water bodies indicate incomplete removal during the treatment process. The presence of the ECs in the water has a potential impact on the ecological and human health associated with long-term ingestion of the mixture ECs compounds, and this includes the development of resistance in pathogenic bacteria, aquatic toxicity, genotoxicity, and endocrine disruption. In this study, we investigate the presence of ECs and review the occurrence of mainly of four pharmaceutical active compounds belonging to the group of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in influent and effluent of the STP. The target analytes (ibuprofen (IBU), diclofenac (DIC), ketoprofen (KET), and naproxen (NAP)) are extracted from the wastewater using the solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by the identification and quantification using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The GC-MS detection was improved by the derivatisation technique using N-Methyl-N-(trimethylsilyl) trifluoroacetamide (MSTFA) and an internal standard of Ibuprofen-D3 used as the internal standard. The targeted analytes were detected in both influent and effluent wastewater in the range 5.04±5.9 to 37.4±28.4 µg/L with removal efficiency between 11 – 86% using the current activated sludge treatment process in the STP. This concentration of compounds shows inadequate current treatment techniques to eliminate the emerging contaminants in the wastewater.

Keywords: Emerging contaminants; sewage treatment plant; pharmaceutical active compounds; non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-11
12. Kualiti dan Potensi bagi Tipologi Ruang Awam Terbuka di Bawah Jejambat dalam Konteks Bandar Lama Kuala Lumpur Kajian Kes: Kawasan LRT Pasar Seni
Quality and Potential for Public Open Space Typology Underneath the Flyover in the Context of Old
Town Kuala Lumpur Case Study: Pasar Seni LRT Area

Nurul Nazifa Nordin & Mohd Iskandar Abd Malek

The existence of public open spaces make a city more vibrant and sustainable for the local population. However, there are still abandoned spaces that are not fully utilized such as spaces under the bridges and flyovers; despite having great potential to be developed for the public use. These abandoned spaces under the bridges have severed the network of connections between neighbouring areas and can become a potential place for social ills and criminal activities. In terms of urban planning, these have resulted in “lost spaces” that can further deform the existing urban fabric. Therefore, this research is conducted to identify the quality and to study the potential typology of public open spaces under bridges and flyovers. The area for this research is conducted at Pasar Seni LRT Station, Kelana Jaya Line in Old Town Kuala Lumpur. All the data for this research paper are collected through qualitative methods such as field studies and observation and quantitative methods such as questionnaires provided to users to gauge their opinions about the public open space under the bridge at the station. This research paper also includes brief interview and photographic documentation as study material to identify the quality of this open space in terms of accessibility, variety, legibility, robustness, safety and identity and meaning. The findings from this research shows that although the bridge and flyover facilitates and accelerates the movement of the public, at the same time this facility have created abandoned spaces that can be further developed for the interest and convenience of the public. Through this research paper, the relevant authorities can fully identify the potential of this public open space that can later be developed into additional facilities and used by the public and other visitors in the area.

Keywords: Public open space; flyovers; quality; potential

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-12
13. Penggunaan Kaedah Aliran Angin untuk Mengatasi Masalah Kecacatan Produk Plastik
Air Vent to Solve Plastic Product Defects

Norjamalullail Tamri & Rozli Zulkifli

The product from plastic has occurred many defects and caused more difficulties to the worker in the injection moulding manufacturing sectors. There are some of few samples of defected plastic product such as shot short, burn mark, flashing, warping, bubbles and et cetera. Air vent is the marking line was designed on the mould. This air vent line has constructed in the centre of the ejector rod. Air vent also invented at the block in the mould or suitable places. This airflow line will occur during, while or after setting up a new mould installation processes. The position and size of the airflow line will determine the analysis of flow rate for raw material. Other factors also counted such as working experience and trial and error concepts. If the injection time is lesser than the from recommended timing (S2 > S1), will cause the gases to emit from melting material will be trapped into the mould. This scenario will occur defects to the products. According to the journal papers, four (4) cases were practically addressed about plastic products defects. All study has presented and addresses cases, many benefits were obtained in terms of time and number of defected products. But this process only can be controlled if the mould maintenance and mould lifespan where repaired. Hence the cost of operation and the number of defected products is significantly decreased as well as increased the number of products.

Keywords: Air vent; plastic product; plastic defect; injection moulding; injection mould

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-13
14. Preliminary Investigation on Properties of Novel Sustainable Composite: Fish Scales Reinforced Cement Concrete

Fahad Ahmed Arain, Masroor Ali Jatoi, Muhammad Saleem Raza, Fahad Ali Shaikh, Farhan Khowaja & Kunal Rai

This study focused on analysing the effect of fish scales reinforcement on fresh and hardened-state properties of concrete. For this purpose, 24 cubes and 24 cylinders were casted at a design mix ratio of 1:2.3:4.3. The water-cement ratio of 0.57 was maintained. The fish scales reinforcement levels of 0%, 1%, 1.5% and 2% by weight of cement were maintained for casting of specimens. For fresh-state assessment, the workability of concrete mixes was observed by slump test and the results showed that, with the addition of fish scales, the slump value decreased due to increase in water demand. With the addition of 2% Fish Scales, the workability of concrete mixes reduced by 36.40%. The compressive strength and tensile strength of concrete cubes and cylinders were tested with Universal Testing Machine (UTM) at curing period of 7 and 28 days. Out of 48 specimens casted, a total of 24 specimens were subjected to compressive strength test while other 24 specimens were tested for tensile strength. The results reported that with addition of 2% fish scales in concrete, the tensile strength of concrete increased but the compressive strength initially decreased and later increased. It can thus be concluded that the fish scales can be incorporated in concrete with steel to enhance the tensile strength of concrete. Keeping the initial decrease in compressive strength of concrete in consideration, it can be recommended that the fish scale reinforced concrete can be safely used in light weight structures and non-structural elements like floor slabs and ribs.

Keywords: Concrete; fish scales; compressive strength; tensile strength; workability

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-14
15. Effective Bioconversion of Locally obtained Apple Waste into Citric Acid using Aspergillus Niger (NRRL 567)

Faheem Akhter, Shaheen Aziz & Fatima Jalal

A viable and sustainable method was used to produce citric acid. Apple waste (pomace) was used as a substrate and displayed a good efficiency for citric acid yield. The fermentation process was carried out using Aspergillus Niger (NRRL 567) strain. This fungal strain showed a competent performance in fermenting apple waste to produce citric acid. Various key parameters were analyzed and optimized such as incubation temperature, amount of substrate, ph, moisture content, nitrogen source, metal ions, methanol inducer and inoculum density. Among such parameters, the highest citric acid yield of 158 g/kg of apple pomace was achieved with the use of methanol inducer. Methanol inducer, moisture content, amount of substrate and nitrogen source were found to have significant impact on CA production. The fungal strain used in the present study is known to possess an impressive biomass fermentation capacity, as also demonstrated by the present work. In Pakistan, this strain has not been analyzed for its efficiency to produce citric acid using pomace of locally cultivated apple, hence the novelty of the present work. All the experimental work, analysis and optimization was accomplished on laboratory scale at Advanced Research Laboratory, Zoology Department, GC University, Faisalabad, Pakistan.

Keywords: SSF; apple pomace; citric acid; substrate; aspergillus niger

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-15
16. Studying the Effect of Fatigue and Sleepiness of Long-Haul Truck Drivers on Road Accidents by Adopting Structural Equation Models Analysis

Zhaleh Shams, Hamed Khani Sanij, Alireza Afshani, Ehsan Ramezani-Khansari, Fereidoon Moghadas Nejad & Martin Olazar

The significant increase in transportation and heavy vehicle traffic has caused freeway routes with heavy traffic to face a decrease in safety levels. Furthermore, fatigue and sleepiness are proven to be two of the main reasons of road accidents, and therefore focus on these issues is crucial. Factors such as “use of engineering (safety) technology for road transport”, “informing the drivers on various educational methods”, “controlling the drivers’ work hours”, “use of different routes (alignment inconsistency)” and “observing the drivers’ mental health” should be approached to reduce the accidents caused by fatigue and sleepiness. Given the complex interrelationships between these variables and the number of road accidents, structural equation modelling has been used in this study to estimate the effect and relationships between multiple variables. Data were collected during a 5-month period by interviewing heavy vehicle drivers (2765 filled-out questionnaires). The Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) has also been used to ascertain the validity of the questionnaires. The mentioned factors affecting the drivers’ fatigue were analyzed using SPSS 24.0 package, which allowed ascertaining that the drivers’ mental health is the factor of greater influence on road accidents caused by fatigue and drowsiness. Therefore, actions to improve the drivers’ mental and emotional health (by improving the currently used engineering (safety) technology and alignment inconsistency) should be enhanced rather than excessive controls on the drivers’ work hours by using GPS, work papers and inspections.

Keywords: Road accidents; fatigue; sleepiness; heavy-vehicle drivers; structural equation modelling

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-16
17. Introduction of Hands-On Session Using Kolb Experiential Learning Theory Approach in Teaching Chemical Instrumentation Subject

M.S.Noorashikin, S.Y.Beh, N.W.N. Nur Atiqah, M.N.Nurfaradilla & Y. Farhanini

Chromatography is a high-technology instrument that is widely used in the various in the various industry for decades. Hence, Science Bachelor Graduates’ that possesses ability to handle instrumentation are useful for their job nature. Learning approach that depends highly on lecture mode only enhance students’ knowledge on chromatographic techniques, but they might not possess skills on instruments handling. Therefore, the learning approach of Chemical Instrumentation Method (KKKR5833) subject using a Kolb Experiental Learning Theory are running by hybrid mode of lecture and handson teaching approach on chromatography. A total of 16 registered students were the respondent of this study. These students had been given lecture on the theoretical part of chromatography and later on, in agreement with the experiential learning theories, student will experience hands-on learning activity in HPLC laboratory session. Finally, a full report after completing the hands-on session for their overall experience in laboratory. Majority of the students that took this elective subject agreed that hands-on experience of using chromatography increases their knowledge on it and mastering the preparation of sample skill is very useful while 50% of the students put more effort in this subject and manage to score excellently. Moreover, majority graduate student express agreement that basic knowledge and skills on chromatographic is important before working and indicated that students with knowledge and skills on chromatographic instrumentation have higher chance of employment. This statement also agreed by respondent from industries. This prove that hands-on teaching and learning approach in laboratory using chromatography instrument able to enhance knowledge and student skills.

Keywords: High performance liquid chromatography; hands-on; chromatographic instrumentation; learning activity; elective subject; Kolb Experimental Learning Theory; hybrid mode

DOI : dx.doi.org/10.17576/jkukm-2022-34(2)-17