Sains Malaysiana 46(10)(2017): 1771–1778


Biodiesel Production from Fish (Cyprinus carpio) Waste and Evaluation of Engine Performance

(Penghasilan Biodiesel daripada Sisa Ikan (Cyprinus carpio) dan Penilaian Prestasi Enjin)




Institute of Biological sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Received: 26 September 2016/Accepted: 4 March 2017



As fossil energy resources are depleting quick and energy security is playing a vital role in the world economy. Quest for alternative energy sources have turned researches investigation in waste foods for next generation fuel. Biodiesel is usually considered to be environmentally friendly as it reduces greenhouse gas emission. Fish wastes rich in fatty acids and can be used as the raw material to produce biodiesel through transesterification reaction. The results showed that the seven peaks are fatty acid methyl esters, indicating all the triglycerides were successfully methylated to methyl esters. Fish based biodiesel provided a significant reduction in carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions under engine loads of 15 (Nm) and required no engine modification. The viscosity of the produced biodiesel was within the range of international standards (ASTM). The biodiesel was found to contain a low base number and exhibited a lower specific fuel consumption compared to the conventional diesel. It can be concluded that biodiesel derived from waste fish oil can be considered as a potential source of commercial biodiesel.


Keywords: Biodiesel; emission; fatty acid; fish waste; fuel consumption



Apabila sumber tenaga fosil semakin berkurangan dan jaminan tenaga memainkan peranan penting dalam ekonomi dunia, maka pencarian sumber tenaga alternatif telah menyebabkan kajian penyelidik terarah kepada sisa makanan sebagai bahan api untuk generasi akan datang. Biodiesel biasanya dianggap sebagai mesra alam kerana ia mengurangkan kesan pelepasan gas rumah hijau. Sisa makanan ikan adalah kaya dengan asid lemak dan boleh digunakan sebagai bahan mentah untuk menghasilkan biodiesel melalui tindak balas transpengesteran. Hasil kajian menunjukkan bahawa tujuh puncak adalah asid lemak metil ester dengan kesemua trigliserida telah berjaya termetil kepada metil ester. Biodiesel berasaskan ikan memberikan pengurangan signifikan dalam pelepasan karbon monoksida (CO) dan hidrokarbon (HC) pada beban enjin 15 (Nm) dan tidak memerlukan modifikasi enjin. Kelikatan biodiesel yang dihasilkan adalah dalam julat piawai anatarabangsa (ASTM). Biodiesel didapati mengandungi nombor asas yang rendah dan menunjukkan penggunaan bahan api yang lebih rendah berbanding diesel konvensional. Kesimpulannya, biodiesel terbitan sisa minyak ikan boleh dipertimbangkan sebagai potensi sumber biodiesel komersial.


Kata kunci: Biodiesel; emisi; penggunaan bahan api; sisa ikan


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