Sains Malaysiana 39(4)(2010): 689–696


Antioxidant Intake and Mild Cognitive Impairment Among  Elderly People in Klang Valley: A Pilot Study

(Kajian Perintis: Pengambilan Antioksidan dan Kegagalan Kognitif Ringan  di Kalangan Warga Tua Lembah Klang)


Sher Hui Wong, Roslee Rajikan*, Suzana Shahar, Noor Aini Mohd Yusoff & Lai Kuan Lee

Department of Nutrition & Dietetics

Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Safiyyah Abdul Aziz

Health Psychology Unit

Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Noor Ibrahim Mohd Sakian

Occupational Therapy Programme

Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Srijit Das

Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


Diserahkan: 22 Jun 2009 / Diterima: 13 Januari 2010





Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is associated with significant morbidity, especially in the development of Alzheimer’s disease and also related to nutritional factors. A pilot study was carried out to determine antioxidant intake and its relation with MCI among elderly people aged between 60 and 74 years in Klang Valley. Subjects were interviewed to obtain socio-demography data and functional status was evaluated using the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living (IADL). Data on food intake was assessed using the diet history questionnaire and food frequency questionnaire, whilst the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) was used to assess depression level. A combination of tests was used to assess cognitive decline, which are Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), Clock Drawing Test (CDT), and Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). Out of 84 elderly recruited, 70 completed all parts of the study (response rate 83.3%). Mean vitamin E intake was less than the Malaysian RNI (50.0% of RNI for men and 43.0% for women). The incidence of amnestic-MCI (aMCI) was 15.7% among the respondents, while 32.8% were depressed. After adjustment for educational background, beta-carotene intake was found to be significantly (β=0.325, p<0.05) correlated to cognitive impairment based on CDT scores. The intake levels of antioxidants among subjects were unsatisfactory and beta-carotene intake was related to poor cognitive status based on CDT.


Keywords: Antioxidants; cognitive impairment; elderly; oxidative stress




Kegagalan kognitif ringan sering dikaitkan dengan morbiditi yang signifikan, terutamanya perkembangan penyakit Alzheimer, dan berhubungkait dengan faktor pemakanan. Suatu kajian awal telah dijalankan untuk menentukan pengambilan antioksidan dan hubungkaitnya dengan kegagalan kognitif ringan di kalangan warga tua berumur 60 hingga 74 tahun di Lembah Klang. Subjek ditemuduga untuk memperoleh data sosiodemografi dan status kefungsian diuji dengan menggunakan penilaian Aktiviti Hidup Harian Instrumental (IADL). Data pengambilan diet ditentukan dengan menggunakan soal-selidik sejarah diet dan soal-selidik kekerapan makanan, manakala Skala Kemurungan Geriatrik (GDS) pula digunakan untuk menentukan tahap kemurungan. Satu kombinasi ujian digunakan untuk menentukan kemerosotan kognitif, iaitu Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), Ujian Pelukisan Jam (CDT), dan Dementia Rating Scale (DRS). Daripada 84 peserta, 70 orang telah melengkapkan kesemua bahagian kajian tersebut (kadar respons 83.3%). Purata pengambilan vitamin E didapati kurang daripada saranan RNI Malaysia (50.0% RNI untuk lelaki dan 43.0% untuk perempuan). Insiden kegagalan kognitif ringan jenis amnestik adalah 15.7% di kalangan responden, manakala 32.8% subjek menghadapi kemurungan. Setelah mengambil kira faktor pendidikan, pengambilan beta-karoten didapati berhubungkait secara signifikan (β=0.325, p<0.05) dengan kegagalan kognitif berdasarkan skor CDT. Tahap pengambilan antioksidan di kalangan subjek adalah tidak memuaskan dan pengambilan beta-karoten didapati berhubungkait dengan status kognitif yang lemah berdasarkan ujian CDT.


Kata kunci: Antioksidan; kegagalan kognitif; tekanan oksidatif; warga tua



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