Sains Malaysiana 40(10)(2011): 1105–1113


Quantitative Determination of Ammonium Ion in Aqueous Environment

Using Riegler’s Solution and Artificial Neural Network

(Penentuan Kuantitatif Ion Ammonium dalam Persekitaran Akueus Menggunakan Larutan

Riegler dan Jaringan Neural Tiruan)


Tan Ling Ling, Musa Ahmad & Lee Yook Heng*

School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia

43600 Bangi, Selangor D.E. Malaysia


Diserahkan: 12 August 2008/Diterima: 22 April 2009





A quantitative analysis has been conducted to determine the concentration of ammonium (NH4+) ion in solution by using Ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry method and artificial neural network (ANN). Riegler’s reagent was used to form Riegler-NH4+ complex. The characterisations of Riegler’s reagent in solution such as photostability, pH effect, reagent concentration, dynamic range and reproducibility were conducted. The colour change of the Riegler’s reagent after reaction with NH4+ was yellow to red. The Riegler’s reagent responds linearly to NH4+ ion concentration in the range of 1-7 ppm with optimum response at pH7. Satisfactory reproducibility (2.0-2.8%) were obtained with this reagent. The effect of interfering ions that may contain in the leachate on the determination of NH4+ ion was also studied. The application of ANN enabled the extension of the useful dynamic concentration range of NH4+ ion to 1–24 ppm. The best ANN architecture for Riegler-NH4+ complex was built from 29 hidden neurons, 21,389 epochs number and 0.001% learning rate which produced sum square error (SSE) value of 0.0483 with an average calibration error of 1.4136.


Keywords: Ammonium ion; artificial neural network; Riegler’s reagent; ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry



Analisis kuantitatif telah dilakukan untuk menentukan kepekatan ion ammonium (NH4+) dalam larutan dengan menggunakan kaedah spektrofotometri utralembahyung-nampak dan jaringan neural tiruan (ANN). Reagen Riegler telah digunakan untuk membentuk kompleks Riegler-NH4+. Pencirian terhadap reagen Riegler dalam larutan termasuk analisis kestabilan foto reagen, kesan pH, kesan kepekatan reagen, julat kepekatan dinamik dan kebolehulangan telah dilakukan. Perubahan warna reagen Riegler selepas bertindak balas dengan NH4+ adalah kuning ke merah. Reagen Riegler memberi rangsangan linear kepada ion NH4+ dalam julat 1-7 ppm dengan rangsangan optimum pada pH7. Kebolehulangan yang memuaskan (2.0-2.8%) telah diperolehi dengan reagen ini. Kesan ion pengganggu yang boleh didapati dalam air larut lesap dalam penentuan ion NH4+ juga dikaji. Penggunaan ANN telah berupaya memanjangkan julat kepekatan dinamik ion NH4+ sehingga julat kepekatan 1 – 24 ppm. Arkitektur jaringan ANN yang terbaik untuk kompleks Riegler-NH4+ dibina daripada 29 neuron terlindung, 21,389 unit bilangan kitaran dan kadar pembelajaran 0.001% yang menghasilkan nilai ralat jumlah kuasa dua (SSE) sebanyak 0.0483 dengan purata ralat sebanyak 1.4136.


Kata kunci: Ion ammoniumk; jaringan neural tiruan; reagen Riegler’s; spektrofotometri utralembahyung-nampa



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