Sains Malaysiana 42(11)(2013): 1625–1632


Validation of a Food Frequency Questionnaire in Assessing the Omega-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Intake for Malays and Chinese Elderly in Malaysia

(Pengesahan Soal-selidik Kekerapan Makanan untuk Menilai Pengambilan Asid Lemak

Omega-3 Poli-tak-tepu untuk Warga Tua Melayu dan Cina di Malaysia



1Nutrition Programme, School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, University of Science Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia


2Dietetics Program, School of Health Care Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences,

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


3Masterskill University College of Health Sciences, G-8, Jalan Kemacahaya 11 Taman Kemacahaya, Batu 9, 43200 Cheras, Selangor D.E. Malaysia


4Division of Geriatrics, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Malaya

50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia



Diserahkan: 3 April 2012/Diterima: 8 Jun 2013




Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) is crucial to prevent a wide range of chronic diseases from a global view point. However, no suitable dietary assessment tool is available for usage among Malaysian population. The present study aimed to evaluate the validity of interviewer-administered semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) for assessing the omega-3 PUFAs intake among the Malays and Chinese elderly individuals in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Thirty-seven elderly people (54.1% women and 45.9% men), aged 60 years and above, were recruited from a community setting. Omega-3 PUFAs intake for the past one month was assessed using a 45-food item FFQ and validated against 3 days Food Record (FR). Wilcoxon signed rank test indicated no significant mean intake difference between two assessment methods. Significant correlation was found for total omega-3 PUFAs (r=0.926), α-linolenic acid (ALA) (r=0.745), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) (r=0.579) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) (r=0.912). Bland-Altman analysis exhibited no apparent systematic bias between the two methods for total omega-3 PUFAs intake, while quartile analysis classified 73% subjects assigned into the same quartile. Conclusively, the newly-developed FFQ yielded a reasonable validity in the tested population and provided a convenient means to estimate omega-3 PUFAs intake within healthy Malays and Chinese elderly individuals. Further study to evaluate its validity and reproducibility for different age groups is required.


Keywords: Elderly; food frequency questionnaire; food record; omega-3 PUFAs; validity




Asid lemak omega-3 poli-tak-tepu (PUFAs) adalah penting untuk mencegah pelbagai penyakit kronik mengikut pandangan global. Namun, tiada alat penilaian dietari yang bersesuaian untuk kegunaan populasi di Malaysia. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk menilai kesahihan soal-selidik kekerapan makanan (FFQ) untuk menilai pengambilan omega-3 PUFAs bagi warga tua Melayu dan Cina di Lembah Klang, Malaysia. Tiga puluh tujuh orang warga tua (54.1% perempuan dan 45.9% lelaki), berumur 60 tahun dan ke atas telah direkrut daripada satu komuniti. Pengambilan omega-3 PUFAs bagi sebulan lepas dinilai menggunakan FFQ yang mengandungi 45 item dan kesahihannya dibandingkan dengan Rekod Makanan (FR) 3 hari. Ujian Wilcoxon signed rank menunjukkan bahawa tiada perbezaan min yang signifikan antara kedua-dua kaedah penilaian. Korelasi yang signifikan didapati untuk jumlah omega-3 PUFAs (r=0.926), asid linolenik alfa (ALA) (r=0.745), asid eikosapentanoik (EPA) (r=0.579) dan asid dokosaheksanoik (DHA) (r=0.912). Analisis Bland-Altman menunjukkan tiada bias sistematik yang ketara antara dua kaedah bagi jumlah pengambilan omega-3 PUFA, manakala analisis kuartil mengklasifikasikan 73% subjek ke dalam kuartil yang sama. Sebagai kesimpulannyai, FFQ yang baru dibina menunjukkan kesahihan yang munasabah bagi populasi kajian dan memberikan satu cara mudah untuk menganggar pengambilan omega-3 PUFAs bagi warga tua Melayu dan Cina yang sihat. Kajian lanjut bagi menilai kebolehulangan dan kesahihannya bagi kumpulan umur yang berbeza adalah amat diperlukan.


Kata kunci: Kesahihan; omega-3 PUFAs; rekod makanan; soal-selidik kekerapan makanan; warga tua



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