Sains Malaysiana 45(4)(2016): 541–549

Optimum Temperature for the Growth Form of Tiger Grouper (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀) × Giant Grouper (E. lanceolatus ♂) Hybrid

(Suhu Optimum untuk Tumbesaran Hibrid Kerapu Harimau (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus ♀)

× Kerapu Gergasi (E. lanceolatus ♂)




1School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


2Marine Ecosystem Research Center, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor, Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


3School of Fisheries and Aquaculture Sciences, Universiti of Malaysia Terengganu

21030 Kuala Nerus, Terengganu Darul Iman, Malaysia


4School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


Diserahkan: 3 September 2015/Diterima: 23 Oktober 2015





The growth form and condition of the tiger grouper × giant grouper (TGGG) hybrid were evaluated under four temperatures (22°C, 26°C, 30°C, and 34°C) and two diets (pellet and shrimp). The growth form of fish was determined over a 30 day experimental period using the length–weight relationship (LWR) method. The TGGG hybrid grouper exhibited a negative allometric growth (b < 3) at all temperatures and diets at the beginning of the experiment (0 day), which indicated that fish would become lighter as they increased in size. Conversely, toward the end of the experiment (30 d), the TGGG hybrid grouper showed a negative allometric growth (b < 3) at 22°C and 34°C on both pellet and shrimp diet as well as demonstrated an isometric growth (b = 3) at 26°C fed on both diet and 30°C on pellet diet only, which indicated that the shape of the fish would not change with increasing weight and length. However, a positive allometric growth (b > 3) was observed at 30°C when the fish were fed on shrimp diet, which indicated that fish weight would increase with increasing length and size. The condition factors (K and Kn) in the initial (0 d) and final (30 d) measurements were greater than 1, thereby indicating the wellbeing of the TGGG hybrid grouper, except for those fish fed on both pellet and shrimp diet under 22°C and 34°C. Therefore, diet did not have a significant effect (p > 0.05) on the growth and condition of TGGG hybrid grouper, whereas temperature significantly influenced the growth and condition of the fish. All in all, grouper farmers can culture TGGG hybrid grouper between 26°C and 30°C, whereas the best growth and condition could be observed by culturing the fish at 30°C fed on shrimp.


Keywords: Aquaculture; condition factor; feeding; length-weight relationship; management




Bentuk pertumbuhan dan keadaan hibrid kerapu harimau × kerapu gergasi (TGGG) telah dinilai pada empat suhu (22°C, 26°C, 30°C dan 34°C) dan dua diet (pelet dan udang). Bentuk pertumbuhan ikan telah ditentukan dalam tempoh percubaan 30 hari menggunakan kaedah hubungan panjang-berat (HPB). Hibrid kerapu TGGG menunjukkan pertumbuhan alometri negatif (b <3) pada semua suhu dan diet pada awal eksperimen (0 hari), yang menunjukkan bahawa ikan akan menjadi lebih ringan apabila saiznya meningkat. Sebaliknya, di akhir eksperimen (30 hari), hibrid kerapu TGGG menunjukkan pertumbuhan alometri negatif (b <3) pada 22°C dan 34°C bagi kedua-dua diet pelet dan udang serta menunjukkan pertumbuhan isometri (b = 3) pada 26°C untuk kedua-dua diet dan 30°C pada diet pelet sahaja, yang menunjukkan bahawa bentuk ikan itu tidak akan berubah dengan peningkatan berat badan dan panjang. Walau bagaimanapun, pertumbuhan alometri positif (b> 3) diperhatikan pada 30°C apabila ikan diberi makan diet udang, yang menunjukkan bahawa berat badan ikan akan meningkat dengan peningkatan panjang dan saiz. Faktor keadaan (K dan Kn) pada permulaan ukuran (0 hari) dan akhir (30 hari) adalah lebih besar daripada 1, menunjukkan hibrid kerapu TGGG membesar dengan baik, kecuali ikan yang diberi makan pada kedua-dua diet pelet dan udang pada 22°C dan 34°C. Oleh itu, diet tidak mempunyai kesan yang signifikan (p > 0.05) kepada pertumbuhan dan keadaan hibrid kerapu TGGG, manakala suhu mempengaruhi pertumbuhan dan keadaan ikan secara signifikan. Kesimpulannya, penternak kerapu boleh mengkulturkan kerapu hibrid TGGG antara 26°C dan 30°C, manakala pertumbuhan dan keadaan terbaik boleh diperhatikan dengan mengkulturkan ikan pada 30°C  yang diberi makan udang.

Kata kunci: Akuakultur; faktor keadaan; hubungan panjang-berat; makan; pengurusan


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