Sains Malaysiana 45(7)(2016): 1105–1111


Physical Properties and Microstructure of Butter Cake Added with Persea americana Puree

(Sifat Fizikal dan Mikrostruktur Kek Mentega yang ditambah dengan Puri Persea americana)




School of Health Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150 Kubang Kerian, Kelantan, Malaysia


Diserahkan: 19 November 2015/Diterima: 21 Januari 2016



The effect of addition of avocado (Persea americana) puree on the physical and microstructure of butter cake was studied. Butter cakes were made by replacing butter with 10, 30 and 50% of avocado puree. Physical properties including batter specific gravity, volume, colour and image analysis of cellular structure of the crumb were analyzed. Texture profile analysis was determined using texture analyzer. The results showed that with the increased amount of avocado puree, the batter specific gravity increased while volume of the cakes reduced. The texture profile analysis showed that the cakes became harder as the amount of avocado puree increased, while cohesiveness was not affected. The cellular structure of the crumb exhibited a decrease in the number of air cells while the average cell size increased with addition of avocado puree. The colour analysis showed that the cake crumb became darker as the avocado puree was increased.


Keywords: Avocado; butter cake; physical; scanning electron microscopy; texture



Kesan penambahan puri avokado (Persea americana) ke atas ciri fizikal dan mikrostruktur kek mentega telah dikaji. Kek mentega telah dihasilkan dengan menggantikan mentega dengan puri avokado pada kadar 10, 30 dan 50%. Ciri fizikal termasuk graviti tentu bater, isi padu, warna dan analisis imej struktur selular kek telah dianalisis. Analisis profil tekstur telah ditentukan menggunakan penganalisis tekstur. Keputusan kajian menunjukkan bahawa dengan peningkatan puri avokado, graviti tentu bater meningkat manakala isi padu kek menurun. Analisis profil tekstur menunjukkan kek menjadi semakin keras apabila jumlah puri avokado meningkat manakala nilai kelekatan tidak terjejas. Struktur selular kek menunjukkan penurunan pada bilangan sel udara manakala purata saiz sel udara meningkat dengan penambahan puri avokado. Analisis warna menunjukkan kek menjadi semakin gelap apabila kandungan puri avokado meningkat.


Kata kunci: Avokado; kek mentega; fizikal; mikroskop imbasan elektron; tekstur


AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis of the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (17th ed). Maryland: AOAC.

Adair, M., Knight, S. & Gates, G. 2001. Acceptability of peanut butter cookies prepared using mungbean paste as a fat ingredient substitute. Journal of American Diet Association 101: 467-469.

Armbrister, W.L. & Setser, C.S. 1994. Sensory and physical properties of chocolate chip cookies made with vegetable shortening of fat replacers at 50 and 75% level. Cereal Chemistry 71: 344-350.

Ashwini, A., Jyotsna, R. & Indrani, D. 2009. Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the rheological, microstructural and quality characteristics of eggless cake. Food Hydrocolloids 23: 700-707.

Blaszczak, W., Sadowska, J., Rosell, C.M. & Fornal, J. 2004. Structural changes in the wheat dough and bread with the addition of alpha-amylases. European Food Research and Technology 219: 348-354.

Carvajal-Zarrabal, O., Nolasco-Hipolito, C., Aguilar-Uscanga, M.G., Melo-Santiesban, G., Hayward-Jones, P.M. & Barradas-Dermitz, D.M. 2014. Avocado oil supplementation modifies cardiovascular risk profile markers in a rat model of sucrose-induced metabolic changes. Disease Markers 2014: 386425.

Dadkhah, A., Hashemiravan, M. & Seyedain-Ardebili, M. 2012. Effect of shortening replacement with nutrim oatbran on chemical and physical properties of shortened cake. Annals of Biological Research 3: 2682-2687.

Hayek, S.A. & Ibrahim, S.A. 2013. Consumer acceptability of chocolate chip cookie using applesauce as a fat (butter substitute). Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 25: 159-168.

Khalil, A.H. 1998. The influence of carbohydrate-based fat replacers with and without emulsifiers on the quality characteristics of lowfat cake. Plant Foods for Human Nutrition 52: 299-313.

Lee, S., Kim, S. & Inglett, G.E. 2005. Effect of shortening replacement with Oatrim on the physical and rheological properties of cakes. Cereal Chemistry 82: 120-124.

Lim, J.Y. & Wan Rosli, W.I. 2013. The ability of Zea mays ear (young corn) powder in enhancing nutritional composition and changing textural properties and sensory acceptability of yeast bread. International Food Research Journal 20: 799-804.

Lin, S.D. & Lin, S.N. 2001. Studies on the application of isomaltooligo saccharide syrup/sucrose in chiffon cake. Taiwanese Journal of Agricultural Chemistry and Food Science 39: 76-86.

Majzoobi, M., Habibi, M., Hedayati, S., Ghiasi, S. & Farahnaky, A. 2015. Effects of commercial oat fiber on characteristics of batter and sponge cake. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology 17: 99-107.

Martinez-Cervera, S., Hera, E.D.L., Sanz, T., Gomez, M. & Salvador, A. 2013. Effect of nutriose on rheological, textural and sensorial characteristics of Spanish muffins. Food and Bioprocess Technology 6: 1990-1999.

Prabhasankar, P., Indrani, D., Jyotsna, R.G. & Rao, V. 2003. Scanning electron microscopic and electrophoretic studies of the baking process of south Indian parotta - an unleavened flat bread. Food Chemistry 82: 603-609.

Psimouli, V. & Oreopoulou, V. 2013. The effect of fat replacer on batter and cake properties. Journal of Food Science 78: 1495-1502.

Rodriguez-Garcia, J., Puig, A., Salvador, A. & Hernando, I. 2012. Optimization of a sponge cake formulation with inulin as fat replacer: structure, physicochemical, and sensory properties. Journal of Food Science 77: C189-C197.

Rodriguez-Garcia, J., Salvador, A. & Hernando, I. 2014a. Replacing fat and sugar with inulin in cakes: bubble size distribution, physical and sensory properties. Food and Bioprocess Technology 7: 964-974.

Rodriguez-Garcia, J., Sahi, S.S. & Hernando, I. 2014b. Functionality of lipase and emulsifiers in low-fat cakes with inulin. LWT - Food Science and Technology 58: 173-182.

Salama, A., EldesoakySoad, Abul-Fadl, M.M., Bedeir, S.H. & ElmashasAliaa. 2013. The influence of Xanthan gum or glycerol mono stearate incorporation on the quality characteristics of sponge cake. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 9: 5390-5402.

Sikorski, Z.E. & Sikorska-Wisniewska, G. 2006. The role of lipids in food quality. In Improving the Fat Content of Foods, edited by Williams, C. & Buttriss, J. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing. pp. 213-235.

Sowmya, M., Jeyarani, T., Jyotsna, R. & Indrani, D. 2009. Effect of replacement of fat with sesame oil and additives on rheological, microstructural, quality characteristics and fatty acid profile of cakes. Food Hydrocolloids 23: 1827-1836.

Swanson, R.B. & Munsayac, L.J. 1999. Acceptability of fruit purees in peanut butter in peanut butter, oatmeal and chocolate chip reduced-fat cookies. Journal of American Diet Association 99: 343-345.

Wang, M., Zheng, Y., Khuong, T. & Lovatt, C.J. 2012. Effect of harvest date on the nutritional quality and antioxidant capacity in ‘Hass’ avocado during storage. Food Chemistry 135: 694-698.

Wiese, T. & Duffrin, M.W. 2003. Effect of substituting pawpaw fruit puree for fat on the sensory properties of a plain shortened cake. Hortechnology 13: 442-444.

Wekwete, B. & Navder, K.P. 2008. Effect of avocado fruit puree and oatrim as fat replacer on the physical, textural and sensory properties of oatmeal cookies. Journal of Food Quality 31: 131-141.

Wylie-Rosett, J. 2002. Fat substitutes and health: An advisory from the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association. Circulation 105: 2800-2804.

Zahn, S., Pepke, F. & Rohm, H. 2010. Effect of inulin as fat replacer on texture and sensory properties of muffins. International Journal of Food Science and Technology 45: 2531-2537.



*Pengarang untuk surat-menyurat; email: