Sains Malaysiana 50(12)(2021): 3603-3615

http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2021-5012-12

 

Effects of Different Drying Methods on the Functional Properties and Physicochemical Characteristics of Chia Mucilage Powder (Salvia hispanica L.)

(Kesan Kaedah Pengeringan pada Sifat Fungsian dan Ciri Fizikokimia Serbuk Lendiran Chia Salvia hispanica L.))

 

NORASHIKIN MOHD ZAIN1, MAARUF ABD. GHANI1*, ZALIFAH MOHD KASIM & HASLANIZA HASHIM1

 

1Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

 

Diserahkan: 20 Disember 2020/ Diterima: 20 Mac 2021

 

Abstract

Chia seeds are a healthy source of omega-3 fatty acids and dietary fibre. The effects of different drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying) on the functional properties (water holding capacity, oil holding capacity and colour analysis) and physicochemical characteristics (scanning electron microscopy) of chia mucilage powder (Salvia hispanica L.) including comparison with xanthan gum, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and arabic gum were investigated. Chia mucilage dried in a freeze dryer (FD) showed significantly higher (p<0.05) values of water holding and oil holding capacities compared to chia mucilage dried in air convection heat oven (ACHO), xanthan gum, HPMC and arabic gum. It also showed a higher L* value (lightness) than ACHO, HPMC, and xanthan gum but lower values of a*, b*, c*, BI, and ΔE than ACHO and xanthan gum. The morphology of FD is smaller, more uniform in size, with a fine fibrous relative structure compared to ACHO. FD is a novel mucilage that could potentially be used as a functional and environmentally friendly hydrocolloid for human consumption and significantly better than commercial hydrocolloids. These results can also help to select successful drying methods for food products based on their functional and physicochemical characteristics.

 

Keywords: Chia mucilage powder; freeze-drying; functional properties; oven-drying; physicochemical characteristic

Abstrak

Biji chia adalah sumber asid lemak omega-3 dan serabut diet yang sihat. Kesan kaedah pengeringan yang berbeza (pengeringan beku dan pengeringan ketuhar) terhadap ciri-ciri fungsian (muatan simpanan air, muatan simpanan minyak dan analisis warna) dan ciri fizikokimia (mikroskopi elektron pengimbasan) serbuk lendiran chia (Salvia hispanica L.) termasuk perbandingan dengan gam xantan, hidrosipropil metilselulosa (HPMC) dan gam arab telah dikaji. Lendiran chia yang dikeringkan dalam pengering beku (FD) menunjukkan peningkatan secara signifikan (p<0.05) nilai muatan simpanan air dan muatan simpanan minyak tertinggi berbanding dengan lendiran chia yang dikeringkan dalam pengeringan ketuhar (ACHO), gam xantan, HPMC dan gam arab. Ia juga menunjukkan nilai L * yang lebih tinggi (kecerahan) berbanding dengan ACHO, HPMC dan gam xantan tetapi lebih rendah nilai a *, b *, c *, BI dan ΔE berbanding dengan ACHO dan gam xantan. Morfologi FD lebih kecil, ukurannya lebih seragam, dengan struktur berserat halus berbanding ACHO. FD sebagai lendiran baru, berpotensi digunakan sebagai hidrokoloid berfungsi dan mesra alam untuk penggunaan manusia dan jauh lebih baik daripada hidrokoloid komersial. Hasil ini juga dapat membantu memilih kaedah pengeringan yang berjaya untuk produk makanan berdasarkan ciri fungsian dan fizikokimia mereka.

 

Kata kunci: Ciri fizikokimia; pengeringan beku; pengeringan ketuhar; serbuk lendiran chia; sifat fungsian

 

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