Sains Malaysiana 50(1)(2021): 151-160


Low-Energy Separation Technique on Purification of Unsaturated Fatty Acids of Palm Stearin using Methanol Crystallization Method

(Teknik Pemisahan Bertenaga Rendah bagi Penulenan Asid Lemak Tepu daripada Stearin Sawit Menggunakan Kaedah Pengkristalan Metanol)




Laboratory for Biolubricant, Biofuels and Bioenergy, Department of Chemical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


Diserahkan: 10 Mei 2020/Diterima: 24 Jun 2020



This paper discussed the development of a low-energy and cost-effective separation technique of saturated fatty acids (SFAs) from Malaysian Palm Stearin to purify the unsaturation level of its fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids (UFAs) pose great benefits in nutritional value and also can be utilized as a raw material in various food or non-food applications. A methanol crystallization separation method was introduced by manipulating the storage temperature as well as the mixture ratio of palm stearin fatty acids (PSFAs) and methanol as a solvent. The separated compounds were characterized using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, proton (1H-NMR), and carbon (13C-NMR) spectroscopy analysis techniques. The fatty acids composition for both UFAs and SFAs were determined through gas chromatography (GC) analysis technique. The highest separation yield was about 98% (wt.), using a mixture of PSFA:methanol; 1:9 (w/v) at the temperature of -20 °C. This method was successfully separated and purified the UFAs by increasing the unsaturation level of fatty acids about 172% as the final iodine value was about 98 compared to the initial value was at 36. The low-energy methanol crystallization separation method is a cheaper method compared to the conventional high-energy fractional distillation process and positively to be up scaled at industrial level.


Keywords: Fatty acids; low-energy separation; methanol crystallization; palm stearin; separation technique



Kajian ini membincangkan pembangunan teknik pemisahan bertenaga rendah dan efektif kos asid lemak tepu (SFAs) daripada stearin sawit Malaysia untuk penulenan ketidaktepuan asid lemak stearin sawit. Asid lemak tak tepu (UFAs) mempunyai kelebihan nilai khasiat dan juga boleh digunakan sebagai bahan mentah dalam pelbagai aplikasi makanan dan bukan makanan. Suatu kaedah pemisahan pengkristalan metanol diperkenalkan dengan memanipulasikan suhu penyimpanan dan juga nisbah campuran asid lemak stearin sawit (PSFAs) dengan metanol sebagai pelarut. Sebatian yang terpisah akan dicirikan menggunakan teknik analisis spektroskopi transformasi Fourier inframerah (FTIR), spektroskopi proton (1H-NMR) dan karbon (13C-NMR). Komposisi asid lemak bagi kedua-dua UFAs dan SFAs ditentukan menggunakan teknik analisis kromatografi gas (GC). Hasil pemisahan tertinggi adalah 98% (wt.), menggunakan campuran PSFA: metanol; 1:9 (w/v) pada suhu -20 °C. Kaedah ini telah berjaya memisahkan dan menulenkan UFAs dengan meningkatkan tahap ketidaktepuan asid lemak sebanyak 172% dengan nilai iodin akhir sebanyak 98 berbanding nilai awal sebanyak 36. Kaedah pemisahan pengkristalan metanol bertenaga rendah adalah lebih murah berbanding dengan proses pemisahan penyulingan berperingkat bertenaga tinggi dan positif untuk ditingkatkan pada skala industri.


Kata kunci: Asid lemak; pemisahan bertenaga rendah; pengkristalan metanol; stearin sawit, teknik pemisahan



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