Sains Malaysiana 50(2)(2021): 437-447

http://dx.doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2021-5002-15

 

Determinants of Pertussis among Young Children in Selangor, Malaysia

(PenentuanPertusis dalam Kalangan Kanak-kanak di Selangor, Malaysia)

 

JULIANA MANSOR1, HALIM ISMAIL1* & NORIAH ISMAIL2

 

1Department of Community Health, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory, Malaysia

 

2Communicable Disease Control Unit, Selangor State Health Department, 40100 Shah Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

 

Diserahkan: 17 Disember 2019/Diterima: 24 Julai 2020

 

Abstract

The resurgence of pertussis infection worldwide, including Malaysia, is alarming. Young children have the highest reported pertussis incidence and death rates. However, little is known of the risk factors of pertussis in Malaysia. In this study, we aimed to determine the risk factors of pertussis infection among children. We conducted a case-control study involving 143 children aged ≤2 years from Selangor, Malaysia. The children were identified from eNotifikasi, a web-based notification site, from 1 January to 31 December, 2018. Information on clinical presentation and risk factors were collected during investigation of the case by the district health office. Multivariate analysis showed that the odds for pertussis were higher among children aged <3 months (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 5.54; 95% confidence interval (CI); 1.835, 16.710) and among children who had not received their vaccination according to age (aOR 5.641; 95% CI; 1.845, 17.245). The mean duration of cough among the cases was 10.22 days (SD 8.964); that of the controls was 6.47 days (SD 7.098). Paroxysmal cough (93.6%) was the predominant symptom among the cases. A total of 42.6% of cases were aged <2 months, whilst most of the controls were aged >5 months (40.4%). Up to 42.6% of cases and 68.7% of controls were immunised according to their age. Therefore, it is important to ensure that children are vaccinated once they have attained the appropriate age.

 

Keywords: Children; DTaP; factors; immunization; pertussis

 

Abstrak

Kemunculan semula jangkitan pertusis atau batuk kokol di seluruh dunia, termasuk Malaysia, adalah membimbangkan. Kanak-kanak merupakan kumpulan dengan kadar insiden dan kematian tertinggi direkodkan. Walau bagaimanapun, maklumat risiko jangkitan tersebut amat sedikit di Malaysia. Oleh itu, kajian ini dijalankan bagi menentukan faktor risiko jangkitan pertusis dalam kalangan kanak-kanak. Kajian kes kawalan dijalankan melibatkan 143 kanak-kanak berusia ≤2 tahun. Subjek dikenal pasti melalui sistem eNotifikasi dari 1 Januari sehingga 31 Disember, 2018. Maklumat berkaitan dengan tanda-tanda klinikal dan faktor risiko diperoleh semasa siasatan kes oleh pejabat kesihatan daerah. Analisis multivariat mendapati bahawa risiko penjangkitan pertusis adalah tinggi pada bayi berusia <3 bulan (aOR 5.54; 95% CI; 1.835,16.710) dan kanak-kanak yang tidak menerima vaksinasi seperti dijadualkan (aOR 5.641; 95% CI; 1.845,17.245). Purata jangka masa batuk dalam kalangan kes adalah 10.22 hari (SD 8.964); purata jangka masa batuk dalam kalangan kawalan adalah 6.47 hari (SD 7.098). Batuk paroksisma (93.6%) merupakan gejala utama pada kes. Sejumlah 42.6% kes berusia <2 bulan, manakala majoriti kumpulan kawalan berusia >5 bulan (40.4%). Sebanyak 42.6% kes dan 68.7% kawalan telah diberi vaksin mengikut jadual. Kesimpulannya, adalah penting bagi kanak-kanak diimunisasi mengikut jadual yang telah ditetapkan.

 

Kata kunci: DtaP; faktor; imunisasi; kanak-kanak; pertusis

 

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