Sains Malaysiana 50(3)(2021): 655-665


Caddisflies (Trichoptera, Insecta) as Bioindicator of Water Quality Assessment in a Small Stream in Northern Thailand

(Lalat Kadis (Trichoptera, Insecta) sebagai Biopenunjuk Penilai Kualiti air di Sungai Kecil di Utara Thailand)




1Faculty of Environment and Resource Studies, Mahasarakham University, Mahasarakham, 44150, Thailand


2School of Agriculture and Natural Resources, University of Phayao, Tumbol Maeka, Muang District, Phayao Province, 56000, Thailand


3Faculty of Liberal Arts and Science, Kasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen Campus, Nakhon Pathom Province, 73140, Thailand


Diserahkan: 13 April 2020/Diterima: 9 Ogos 2020



The influence of environmental variables and the potential as bioindicators of larval stages of the species of Trichoptera were evaluated in a small stream in northern Thailand from January to November 2017. A total of 1,191 individual caddisfly larvae belonging to 7 families and 13 genus were found. The larvae of the family Glossosomatidae were the most abundant, followed by Hydropsychidae and Calamoceratidae. The genus Glossosoma, Hydromanicus and Hydropsyche were the most abundant genus in this study. Results of the CCA ordination showed that total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, and water temperature were the most important factors affecting the abundance and diversity of caddisfly larvae. Changes in the caddisfly larvae may indicate changes in physicochemical factors owing to urbanization or other anthropogenic. The results showed that the order Trichoptera, identified to the species or genus level, can potentially be used to assess environmental water quality status in freshwater ecosystems. This study suggested that species richness of aquatic insects may indicate the conservation value of the habitats because of their significant responses to environmental factors.


Keywords: Bioindicator; Caddisfly larvae; freshwater ecosystems; water quality variables



Pengaruh pemboleh ubah persekitaran dan potensi sebagai biopenunjuk tahap larva spesies Trichoptera dinilai dalam aliran kecil di utara Thailand dari Januari hingga November 2017. Sebanyak 1,191 larva lalat kadis individu yang tergolong dalam 7 famili dan 13 genus ditemui. Larva famili Glossosomatidae adalah yang paling banyak, diikuti oleh Hydropsychidae dan Calamoceratidae. Genus Glossosoma, Hydromanicus dan Hydropsyche adalah genus yang paling banyak dalam kajian ini. Hasil pentahbisan CCA menunjukkan bahawa jumlah pepejal terlarut, kekonduksian elektrik dan suhu air adalah faktor terpenting yang mempengaruhi kelimpahan dan kepelbagaian larva lalat kadis. Perubahan larva lalat kadis mungkin menunjukkan perubahan dalam faktor fizikokimia kerana perbandaran atau antropogen lain. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahawa urutan Trichoptera yang dikenali untuk spesies atau tingkat genus, berpotensi digunakan untuk menilai status kualiti air lingkungan di ekosistem air tawar. Kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa kekayaan spesies serangga akuatik dapat menunjukkan nilai pemuliharaan habitat kerana tindak balasnya yang signifikan terhadap faktor persekitaran.


Kata kunci: Biopenunjuk; ekosistem air tawar; larva lalat kadis; pemboleh ubah kualiti air



Aazami, J., Sari, A.E., Abdoli, A., Sohrabi, H. & Van den Brink, P.J. 2015. Assessment of ecological quality of the Tajan River in Iran using a multimetric macroinvertebrates index and species traits. Environmental Management 56(1): 260-269. 

Armitage, P.D., Moss, D., Wright, J.F. & Furse, M.T. 1983. The performance of a new biological water quality score system based on macroinvertebrates over a wide range of unpolluted running-water sites. Water Research 17(3): 333-347.

Azrina, M.Z., Yap, C.K., Ismail, A.R., Ismail, A. & Tan, S.G. 2006. Anthropogenic impacts on the distribution and biodiversity of benthic macroinvertebrates and water quality of the Langat River, Peninsular Malaysia. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64(3): 337-347.

Burgmer, T., Hillebrand, H. & Pfenninger, M. 2007. Effects of climate-driven temperature changes on the diversity of freshwater macroinvertebrates. Oecologia 151(1): 93-103.

Buss, D.F., Baptista, D.F., Nessimain, J.L. & Egler, M. 2004. Substrate specificity, environmental degradation and disturbance structuring macroinvertebrate assemblages in Neotropical streams. Hydrobiologia 518(1-3): 179-188.

Clavier, S., Cottet, M., Favriou, P., Phabmixay, S.S. & Guedant, P. 2015. Spatial and temporal variation of benthic macroinvertebrates in the Nam Theun 2 Reservior (Lao PDR).  Hydroécologie Appliquée 19: 217-243.

de Moor, F.C. 2007. Regional biogeographical differences in Trichoptera diversity in South Africa: Observed Patterns and Processes. In Proceedings of the XIIth International Symposium on Trichoptera. Caddis Press. pp. 211-218.

Dohet, A. 2002. Are caddisflies an ideal group for the biological assessment of water quality in stream? In Proceedings of the Xth International Symposium on Trichoptera. Goecke & Evers. pp. 507-520.

Doll, B., Jennings, G., Spooner, J., Penrose, D., Usset, J., Blackwell, J. & Fernandez, M. 2016. Can rapid assessments predict the biotic condition of restored streams? Water 8(143): 1-22. 

Dudgeon, D. 2001. The ecology of tropical Asian rivers and streams in relation to biodiversity conservation. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31(1): 239-263. 

Dudgeon, D. 1999. Tropical Asian Stream: Zoobenthos, Ecology and Conservation, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press. pp. 207-290. 

Engelmann, H.D. 1978. Zur dominanzklassifizierung von bodenarthropoden. Pedobiologia 18(5-6): 378-380.

Fierro, P., Bertran, C., Mercado, M., Pena Cortes, F., Tapia, J., Hauenstein, E., Caputo, L. & Vargas Chacoff, L. 2015. Landscape composition as a determinant of diversity and functional feeding groups of aquatic macroinvertebrates in southern rivers of the Araucanía, Chile. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research43(1): 186-200. 

Gimenez, B.C.G., Lansac-Tôhaa, F.A. & Higutia, J. 2015. Effect of land use on the composition, diversity and abundance of insects drifting in neotropical streams. Brazilian Journal of Biology 75(4): 52-59. 

Hauer, F.R. & Hill, W.R. 2007. Temperature, light and oxygen. In Methods in Stream Ecology. 2nd ed., edited by Hauer, F.R. & Lamberti, G.A. San Diego: Academic Press/Elsevier. pp. 103-117.

Hoang, T.H., Lock, K., Chi Dang, K., De Pauw, N. & Goethals, P.L.M. 2010. Spatial and temporal patterns of macroinvertebrate communities in the Du River basin in northern Vietnam. Journal of Freshwater Ecology 25(4): 637-647.

Kimura, G., Inoue, E. & Hirabayashi, K. 2008. Seasonal abundance of adult caddisfly (Trichoptera) in the middle reaches of the Shinano River in Central Japan. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Urban Pests, edited by Robinson, W.H. & Bajomi, D. Hungary: OOK-Press Kft. pp. 259-266.

Lenat, D.R. & Resh, V.H. 2001. Taxonomy and stream ecology - the benefits of genus- and species-level identifications. Journal of the North American Benthological Society 20(2): 287-298.

Lessard, J.L. & Hayes, D.B. 2003. Effect of elevated water temperature on fish and macroinvertebrate communities below small dams. River Research and Applications 19(7): 721-732.

Li, F., Cai, Q., Jiang, W. & Qu, X. 2012. Macroinvetebrate relationships with water temperature and water flow in subtropical monsoon streams of central China: Implications for climate change. Fundamental and Applied Limnology 180(3): 221-231.

Malicky, H. 2010. Atlas of Southeast Asian Trichoptera. Chiang Mai University. Ph.D. Thesis (Unpublished). 

Malicky, H. 1983. Caddisflies (Trichoptera) from Parakrama Samudra, an ancient man-made lake in Sri Lanka. In Limnology of Parakrama Samudra˗Sri Lanka, edited by Schiemer, F. The Hague: Dr. W. Junk Publishers. pp. 227-228.

Masteller, E.C. & Buzby, K.M. 1993. Composition and temporal abundance of aquatic insect emergence from a tropical rain-forest stream, Quebrada-Prieta, at El-Verde, Puerto-Rico: Introduction. Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 66(2): 133-139. 

McCune, B. & Mefford, M.J. 1999. PC-ORD: Multivariate Analysis of Ecological Data; Version 4. Oregon: MjM Software Design.

Merritt, R.W. & Cummins, K.W. 1996. An Introduction to the Aquatic Insects of North America. 3rd ed. Kendall/Hunt: Publishing Company. 

Milne, M.J. 1938. The metamorphotype method in Trichoptera. Journal of the New York Entomological Society 46(4): 435-437.

Mori, G.B., de Paula, F.R., de Barros Ferraz, S.F., Camargo, A.F.M. & Martinelli, L.A. 2015. Influence of landscape properties on stream water quality in agricultural catchments in      Southeastern Brazil. International Journal of Limnology 51(1): 11-21. 

Morse, J.C. 2018. Trichoptera World Checklist. Accessed on 2 February 2020.

Morse, J.C., Frandsen, P.B., Graf, W. & Thomas, J.A. 2019. Diversity and ecosystem services of Trichoptera. Insects 10(125): 1-25.

Mustow, S.E. 2002.  Biological monitoring of rivers in Thailand: Use and adaptation of the BMWP score. Hydrobiologia 479: 191-229.

Palmer, M.W. 1993. Putting things in even better order: The advantages of canonical correspondence analysis. Ecology 74: 2215-2230. 

Patrick, M.S., Marie, T.M.J. & Nadine, M.L. 2015. Benthic macroinvertebrates as indicators of water quality: A case-study of urban Fauna Stream (in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo). Open Journal of Water Pollution and Treatment 2(1): 8-24. 

Pereira, L.R., Cabette, H.S.R. & Juen, L. 2012. Trichoptera as bioindicators of habitat integrity in the Pindaı´ba river basin, Mato Grosso (Central Brazil). Annales de Limnologie - International Journal of Limnology 48: 295-302.

Principe, R.E. 2008. Taxonomic and size structures of aquatic macroinvertebrate assemblages in different habitats of tropical streams, Costa Rica. Zoological Studies 47: 525-534. 

Prommi, T. 2007. Taxonomy of hydropsychidae (trichopteran) in mountain streams of Southern Thailand.  Prince of Songkla University. Ph.D. Thesis (Unpublished).

Prommi, P. & Payakka, A. 2015. Aquatic insect biodiversity and water quality parameters of streams in Northern Thailand. Sains Malaysiana 44(5): 707-717.

Prommi, P. & Thani, I. 2014. Diversity of Trichoptera fauna and its correlation with water quality parameters at Pasak Cholasit reservoir, Central Thailand. Environment and Natural Resources Journal 12(2): 35-41. 

Prommi, T., Peumwarunyoo, P. & Mansukphol, P. 2016. Distribution of hydropsychidae (insecta, trichoptera) and water quality parameters in Mae Tao Creek, Mae Sot District, Tak Province, northern Thailand. Zoosymposia 10: 413-423.  

Ratia, H., Vuori, K. & Oikari, A. 2012. Caddis larvae (Trichoptera, Hydropsychidae) indicate delaying recovery of a watercourse polluted by pulp and paper industry. Ecological Indicators 15: 217-226.

Reis, D.F.D., Salazar, A.E., Machado, M.M.D., Couceiro, S.R.M. & Morais, P.B.D. 2017. Measurement of the ecological integrity of Cerrado streams using biological metrics and the index of habitat integrity. Insects 8(10): 1-15. 

Resh, V.H. 1992. Recent trends in the use of Trichoptera in Water Quality Monitoring. Proceedings of the VIIth International Symposium on Trichoptera. Backhuys Publishers. pp. 289-291. 

Resh, V.H. & Unzicker, J.D. 1975. Water quality monitoring and aquatic organisms: The importance of species identification. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation 47: 9-19. 

Rosenberg, D.M. & Resh, V.H. 1993. Freshwater Biomonitoring and Benthic Macroinvertebrates. Academic Press: New York.

Shafie, M.S.I., Wong, A.B.H., Harun, S. & Fikri, A.H. 2017. Land use influence on the aquatic insect communities on tropical forest streams of Liwagu River, Sabah, Malaysia. Aquaculture, Aquarium, Conservation & Legislation - International Journal of the Bioflux Society 10(2): 341-352.

Shokri, M., Rossaro, B. & Rahmani, H. 2014. Response of macroinvertebrates communities to anthropogenic pressures in Tajan River (Iran). Biologia 69(10): 1395-1409. 

Siddaramu, D. & Puttaiah, E.T. 2013. Physicochemical characteristics of Balagala Kere and Purali Kere of Shimoga District, Karnataka, India. International Journal of Advanced Research 1(8): 313-321.

Szivak, I., Mora, A. & Torok, J.K. 2011.  Spatio-temporal variations of caddisfly in a chalk stream, Balaton Upland, Hungary. Zoosymposia 5: 439-452.

Tariq, M., Ali, M. & Shah, Z. 2006. Characteristics of industrial effluents and their possible impacts on quality of underground water. Soil & Environmental 25(1): 64-69.   

Wallace, J.B. & Webster, J.R. 1996. The role of macroinvertebrates in stream ecosystem function. Annual Review of Entomology 41: 115-139. 

Ward, D., Holmes, N. & Jose, P. 1995. The New Rivers and Wildlife Handbook. Bedfordshire: Royal Society for the Protection of Birds.

Whiles, M.R. & Wallace, J.B. 1997. Leaf litter decomposition and macroinvertebrate communities in headwater streams draining pine and hardwood catchments. Hydrobiologia 353(1): 107-119.

Wiggins, G.B. 1996. Larvae of the North American Caddisfly Genera (Trichoptera). 2nd ed. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. 

Woodcock, T.S. & Huryn, A. 2007. The response of macroinvertebrate production to a pollution gradient in a headwater stream. Freshwater Biology 52(1): 77-196.

Yap, C.K. & Rahim Ismail, A. 2011. Relationships of distribution of macrobenthic invertebrates and the physico-chemical parameters from Semenyih River by using correlation and multiple linear regression analyses. Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science 34(2): 229-245.

Yule, C.M. & Sen, Y.H. 2004. Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malaysian Region. Selangor: Aura Productions Sdn. Bhd.


*Pengarang untuk surat-menyurat; email: