Sains Malaysiana 50(4)(2021): 1027-1036

http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2021-5004-13

 

Food Poisoning Outbreaks among Schoolchildren in Terengganu and their Associated Factors

(Wabak Keracunan Makanan dalam Kalangan Pelajar Sekolah di Terengganu dan Faktor Penyumbangnya)

 

NUR BAIZURA AINI ABDULLAH & AHMAD FILZA ISMAIL*

 

Department of Community Medicine, School of Medical Sciences, Health Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 16150, Kubang Kerian, Kelantan Darul Naim, Malaysia

 

Diserahkan: 24 Disember 2019/Diterima: 21 September 2020

 

ABSTRACT  

 

Food poisoning is a public health problem in Malaysia and among the top five communicable diseases in Malaysia. This study aimed to determine the proportion of food poisoning cases involving schoolchildren in Terengganu in 2016 and their associated factors. This was a cross-sectional study using secondary data collected from 21 food poisoning outbreaks among schoolchildren in Terengganu in 2016. The proportion of food poisoning outbreaks involving schoolchildren in Terengganu in 2016 was 63.6%. Ministry of Education (MOE) school had contributed to 95.3% of outbreak cases, 81% occurred at secondary school and 57.1% involved school located in urban district. Poultry (61.9%) was the most common food vehicle, and Salmonella spp. (52.4%) was the most common microbial etiological agent. Urban district schools had the adjusted odds (aOR=1.803; 95% CI: 1.435,2.267; p < 0.001) compared with rural district schools. Non-MOE schoolchildren were more likely to be involved in school food poisoning (aOR= 4.439; 95% CI: 2.690,7.177; p <0.001) compared with MOE schoolchildren. Moreover, egg consumption was 4.6 times (aOR=4.627; 95% CI: 1.779,12.035; p=0.002) more likely to be associated with school food poisoning outbreaks in Terengganu in 2016 compared with rice consumption. Cross-contamination (aOR=0.445; 95% CI: 0.445,0.231; p=0.015) was less likely to be linked to school food poisoning compared with inadequate cooking and reheating. Food poisoning among schoolchildren in Terengganu has been associated with non-modifiable factors, such as school district location, and modifiable factors, such as food vehicles and critical control points. Health education on food safety, food handling, strict hygiene practice and clean canteen environment need to be strengthened.

 

Keywords: Foodborne disease; food poisoning outbreak; schoolchildren

 

ABSTRAK

Keracunan makanan adalah salah satu masalah kesihatan awam dan antara lima penyakit berjangkit utama di Malaysia. Kajian ini adalah untuk menentukan perkadaran kes wabak keracunan makanan yang melibatkan pelajar sekolah di Terengganu pada tahun 2016 dan faktor yang berkaitan dengannya. Kajian ini dilakukan dengan kaedah hirisan lintang menggunakan data sekunder kejadian wabak keracunan makanan yang melibatkan pelajar sekolah di Terengganu pada tahun 2016. Perkadaran kejadian wabak keracunan makanan yang melibatkan pelajar sekolah di Terengganu tahun 2016 adalah 63.6%. Sekolah di bawah kelolaan Kementerian Pelajaran Malaysia (KPM) menyumbang kepada 95.3% kes keracunan makanan dengan sekolah menengah menyumbang kepada 81% kes dan 57.1% berlaku di sekolah yang terletak di kawasan bandar. Ayam (61.9%) adalah jenis makanan yang tertinggi menyumbang kepada kejadian wabak keracunan makanan di sekolah dan Salmonella spp. (52.4%) adalah agen etiologi mikrob yang paling kerap dijumpai. Sekolah yang terletak di kawasan bandar (aOR=1.803; 95% CI: 1.435, 2.267; p <0.001) dan pelajar sekolah di bawah kelolaan bukan KPM (aOR= 4.394; 95% CI: 2.690,7.177; p<0.001) mempunyai risiko lebih tinggi untuk mengalami wabak keracunan makanan berbanding dengan sekolah di bawah KPM. Di samping itu, pelajar yang memakan telur adalah 4.6 kali (aOR: 4.627; 95% CI: 1.779, 12.035; p=0.002) lebih berisiko untuk terlibat dengan wabak keracunan makanan di sekolah jika dibandingkan dengan nasi atau bijirin. Pencemaran silang (aOR = 0.445; 95% CI: 0.445.0.231; p = 0.015) mempunyai risiko yang lebih rendah berbanding risiko memakan makanan yang tidak dimasak sepenuhnya atau suhu pemanasan makanan yang tidak mencukupi. Keracunan makanan dalam kalangan pelajar sekolah di Terengganu adalah berkaitan dengan faktor seperti lokasi sekolah, jenis makanan dan titik kawalan kritikal semasa penyediaan makanan. Pendidikan kesihatan perlu diperkukuhkan dalam aspek keselamatan makanan, pengendalian makanan, amalan kebersihan yang sempurna dan persekitaran kantin yang bersih semasa penyediaan makanan.

 

Kata kunci: Pelajar sekolah; penyakit bawaan makanan; wabak keracunan makanan

 

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