Sains Malaysiana 50(4)(2021): 997-1006


Feasibility of UV-Vis Spectral Fingerprinting Combined with Chemometrics for Rapid Detection of Phyllanthus niruri Adulteration with Leucaena leucocephala

(Kebolehlaksanaan Gabungan Spektrum Cap Jari UV-Vis dengan Kemometri untuk Pengesanan Pantas Phyllanthus niruri Dicemarkan dengan Leucaena leucocephala)




1Department Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, IPB University, Jalan Tanjung, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia


2Tropical Biopharmaca Research Center, Institut of Research and Community Empowerment, IPB University, Jalan Taman Kencana No. 3, Kampus IPB Taman Kencana, Bogor 16128, Indonesia


3Advanced Research Laboratory, Institut of Research and Community Empowerment, IPB University, Jalan Palem Raya, Kampus IPB Dramaga, Bogor 16680, Indonesia


4Department of Biotechnology, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan


Diserahkan: 26 Mei 2020/Diterima: 10 September 2020



Phyllanthus niruri is widely used in Indonesia as immunostimulant. The morphology of Leucaena leucocephala leaves is similar to that of P. niruri leaves. L. leucocephala is easy to find and collect because it is widely distributed in the world. Therefore, it is likely P. niruri could be adulterated with L. leucocephala. Therefore, identification and authentication of P. niruri is important to ensure the raw materials used are original without any substitution or mixture with other similar plants causing inconsistencies in their efficacy. In this paper, we described feasibility used of UV-Vis spectral fingerprinting and chemometrics for rapid method for the identification and detection of P. niruri leaves adulterated with L. leucocephala leaves. UV-Vis spectra of samples measured in the interval of 200-800 nm and signal smoothing followed by standard normal variate were used for pre-processing the spectral data. Principal component analysis (PCA) with the absorbance data from the pre-processed UV-Vis spectra in the range of 250-700 nm as variables could distinguish P. niruri from L. leucocephala. PCA followed by discriminant analysis (DA) could successfully classified P. niruri mixed with 5, 25, and 50% L. luecocephala into their respective groups (96.81%). We also employed soft independent modelling of class analogy (SIMCA) for authentication of P. niruri and found that 88.3% of the samples were also correctly classified into their respective groups. A combination of UV-Vis spectroscopy with chemometrics, such as PCA-DA and SIMCA, were used for the first time for the identification and detection of P. niruri adulterated with L. leucocephala.


Keywords: Authentication; chemometrics; Leucaena leucocephala; Phyllanthus niruri; UV-Vis spectroscopy



Phyllanthus niruri banyak digunakan di Indonesia sebagai imunostimulan. Morfologi daun Leucaena leucocephala menyerupai daun P. niruri. L. leucocephala mudah dijumpai dan dikumpulkan kerana boleh diperoleh secara meluas di seluruh dunia. Oleh itu, berkemungkinan P. niruri boleh disatukan dengan L. leucocephala. Oleh itu, pengenalan dan pengesahan P. niruri adalah penting untuk memastikan bahan mentah yang digunakan adalah asli tanpa penggantian atau campuran dengan tanaman lain yang dapat menyebabkan ketidaktekalan dalam keberkesanannya. Dalam kajian ini, kami menerangkan kemungkinan penggunaan cap jari spektrum UV dan Vis dan kemometri untuk kaedah yang cepat untuk mengenal pasti dan mengesan daun P. niruri yang disatukan dengan daun L. leucocephala. Sampel spektrum UV-Vis yang diukur dalam selang 200-800 nm dan kelancaran isyarat diikuti dengan variasi piawai digunakan untuk memproses data spektrum. Analisis komponen utama (PCA) dengan data serapan daripada spektrum UV-Vis yang telah diproses pada julat pada 250-700 nm kerana pemboleh ubah dapat membezakan P. niruri daripada L. leucocephala. PCA diikuti dengan analisis diskriminan (DA) berjaya mengkelaskan P. niruri bercampur dengan 5, 25 dan 50% L. luecocephala ke dalam kumpulan masing-masing (96.81%). Kami juga menggunakan model bebas analogi kelas (SIMCA) untuk pengesahan P. niruri dan mendapati bahawa 88.3% sampel juga dikelaskan dengan betul ke dalam kumpulan masing-masing. Gabungan spektroskopi UV-Vis dengan kemometri, seperti PCA-DA dan SIMCA digunakan untuk pertama kalinya dalam pengenalan dan pengesanan P. niruri yang disatukan dengan L. leucocephala.


Kata kunci: Kemometri; Leucaena leucocephala; pengesahan; Phyllanthus niruri; spektroskopi UV-Vis



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