Sains Malaysiana 50(5)(2021): 1343-1356

http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2021-5005-14

 

Effect of Food Colorants Supplementation on Reactive Oxygen Species, Antioxidant Vitamins Level and DNA Damage

(Kesan Tambahan Pewarna Makanan pada Spesies Oksigen Reaktif, Tahap Antioksidan Vitamin dan Kerosakan DNA)

 

SADAF SHAKOOR1,2*, AMIN ISMAIL1,3, ZIA-UR-RAHMAN4, MOHD REDZWAN SABRAN1 & NORHAFIZAH MOHTARRUDIN5

 

1Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

 

2Sub Campus Burewala-Vehari, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

 

3Research Centre of Excellence, Nutrition and Non-Communicable Diseases (RCOE NNCD), Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

 

4Institute of Pharmacy, Pharmacology, and Physiology, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan

 

5Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

 

Diserahkan: 29 Mac 2020/Diterima: 8 Oktober 2020  

 

ABSTRACT

There are various undesirable products generated from endogenous aerobic metabolism such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Physiological and biochemical lesions are caused by ROS and which give rise to oxidative damages towards DNA, proteins and lipids which ultimately lead to cell death. This study was aimed to examine the effect of oral administration of food colorants (tartrazine and curcumin) on the oxidants and antioxidants level in blood and fecal of rats after 15, 30, and 45 days. Two doses were used based on the admissible daily intake (ADI) of 9.6 and 96 (high) mg/kg/body weight for tartrazine, 3.85 and 38.5 6 mg/kg/body weight for curcumin. The results showed that oral administration of tartrazine had significantly increased the total oxidant level, arylesterase, glutathione reductase, and MDA whereas there was significantly decreased the total antioxidants level, catalase, glutathione peroxidase in plasma and fecal after 30 and 45 days. Vitamin E and C were decreased in plasma. Fecal showed high level of vitamin A. High dose of tartrazine caused alteration in the aldehyde reactive probe (ARP) sites of DNA showing the DNA damage. After 45 day, significant increment was observed in the level of AST in low and high curcumin treated group. Whereas, elevations of arylestrase were seen in high curcumin group after 45 day. High dose of curcumin significantly (P≤ 0.05) decreased the concentration of vitamin C after 45 days of treatment and increased the level of vitamin E in plasma of treated groups after 30 and 45 days of treatment. The present study showed that the ADI and doses up to 10 times higher than ADI showed negative effects on antioxidant level and demonstrated the importance of using appropriate doses of food colorants such as tartrazine and curcumin in different processed food products.

 

Keywords: Antioxidants; arylesterase; food colorants; glutathione; lipid peroxidation; ROS

 

ABSTRAK

Terdapat pelbagai produk yang tidak diingini yang dijanakan daripada metabolisme aerobik endogen seperti spesies oksigen reaktif (ROS). Lesi fisiologikal dan biokimia disebabkan oleh ROS yang mengakibatkan peningkatan kepada kerosakan oksidatif terhadap DNA, protein dan lipid yang akhirnya membawa kepada kematian sel. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk meneliti kesan pelaksanaan oral pewarna makanan (tartrazin dan kurkumin) ke atas tahap oksidan dan antioksidan dalam darah dan najis tikus selepas 15, 30 dan 45 hari. Dua dos telah digunakan berdasarkan pengambilan harian yang dibenarkan (ADI) iaitu 9.6 dan 96 (tinggi) mg/kg/berat badan bagi tartrazin, 3.85 dan 38.5 6 mg/kg/berat badan bagi curcumin. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa pelaksanaan oral tartrazin telah meningkat secara signifikan total tahap oksidan, arilestras, glutation reduktase dan MDA manakala terdapat penurunan yang signifikan total tahap oksidan, katalase, glutation peroksidase dalam  plasma dan najis selepas 30 dan 45 hari. Vitamin E dan C telah menurun dalam plasma. Najis menunjukkan tahap vitamin A yang tinggi. Dos tartrazin yang tinggi yang menyebabkan pengubahan dalam tapak prob reaktif aldehid (ARP) DNA menunjukkan kerosakan DNA. Selepas 45 hari, kenaikan yang signifikan telah dikesan dalam tahap AST dalam kumpulan terawat rendah dan tinggi kurkumin. Manakala, elevasi arilestras telah kelihatan dalam kumpulan tinggi kurkumin selepas 45 hari. Dos tinggi kurkumin secara signifikan (P≤ 0.05) telah menurunkan kepekatan vitamin C selepas 45 hari rawatan dan meningkatkan tahap vitamin E dalam plasma kumpulan kawalan selepas 30 dan 45 hari rawatan. Kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa ADI dan dos sehingga 10 kali lebih tinggi daripada ADI menunjukkan kesan negatif ke atas tahap antioksidan dan ia memaparkan kepentingan untuk menggunakan dos pewarna makanan yang sesuai seperti tartrazin dan  kurkumin dalam produk makanan diproses yang berbeza.

 

Kata kunci: Arilesteras; glutation; pewarna makanan; pemperoksidaan lipid; ROS

 

 

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