Sains Malaysiana 50(7)(2021): 1857-1870

http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2021-5007-03

 

Geological Effects on Water Quality: A Review of Issues and Challenges in Malaysia

(Kesan Geologi terhadap Kualiti Air: Suatu Ulasan Berkenaan Isu dan Cabaran di Malaysia)

 

TERFA E. GARBA1*, REENA L. RICHARD2, NOR EZZAWANIS A. THANI3, MOHAMAD AZLAN A. MAJID4, MUTARI LAWAL1,5 & NURA A. YELWA1,5

 

1Research Fellow, Department of Geology, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory, Malaysia

 

2Research Fellow, Department of Science and Technology University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory, Malaysia

 

3Research Fellow, Institute of Biological Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory, Malaysia

 

4Research Fellow, Tropical Infectious Diseases Research & Education Centre, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory, Malaysia

 

5Research Fellow, Usman Danfodiyo University, P.M.B. 2346, Sokoto, Nigeria

 

Diserahkan: 6 Mei 2020/Diterima: 21 November 2020

 

ABSTRACT

Malaysian source of water for household and industrial use is derived mainly from surface sources. The increasing demand for quality water for household consumption and industrial use has posed a great challenge to the otherwise abundant but scarce natural resources. This paper examines the important challenges associated with the deteriorating water quality in Peninsular Malaysia. Quality water enhances one’s good health. Therefore, evaluating health risk as a result of heavy metals introduction through drinking water from various geological activities like the ex-mining ponds in Klang Valley is worthy to note. Heavy metals which are one of the sources of contaminants, due to their solubility are transported from their source (mining, agricultural, and industrial) to groundwater. There is a linkage between land-use change (activities) such as logging, agriculture, urbanization, mining, and industrial activities as a potential source of contaminants, this is further conflated by the hydrogeology of the areas which show a shallow aquifer system predominantly associated with alluvial and carbonate. Also, microbial contamination had affected water sources. Given that more of the aquifer systems in Peninsular Malaysia are shallow, this makes it very easy for groundwater sources around Malaysia to be contaminated. The industrialisation and urbanisation in Malaysia, as well as the growing population, posed a great challenge to water quality. This paper highlights the key challenges and possible solutions to water quality management in Malaysia.

 

Keywords: Geological; hydrogeology; microbial contamination; Peninsular Malaysia; water quality

 

ABSTRAK

Punca air Malaysia untuk kegunaan isi rumah dan perindustrian berasal terutamanya daripada punca permukaan. Peningkatan permintaan air yang berkualiti untuk penggunaan isi rumah dan penggunaan industri telah menimbulkan tentangan yang besar bagi punca semula jadi yang semakin berkurang. Makalah ini mengkaji cabaran penting yang berkaitan dengan kemerosotan kualiti air di Semenanjung Malaysia. Kualiti air meningkatkan kesihatan seseorang. Oleh itu, menilai risiko kesihatan sebagai hasil pengenalan logam berat melalui air minuman daripada pelbagai aktiviti geologi seperti kolam bekas perlombongan di Lembah Klang patut diperhatikan. Logam berat yang merupakan salah satu punca bahan cemar, kerana kelarutannya diangkut daripada puncanya (perlombongan, pertanian dan perindustrian) ke air bawah tanah. Terdapat kaitan antara perubahan penggunaan tanah (aktiviti) seperti pembalakan, pertanian, pembandaran, perlombongan dan aktiviti industri sebagai punca pencemaran yang berpotensi, ini selanjutnya digabungkan oleh hidrogeologi kawasan yang menunjukkan sistem akuifer cetek terutama terkait dengan aluvium dan karbonat. Juga, pencemaran mikrob mempengaruhi punca air. Disebabkan banyak sistem akuifer di Semenanjung Malaysia cetek, ini menjadikan punca air bawah tanah di sekitar Malaysia mudah tercemar. Perindustrian dan pembandaran di Malaysia, serta pertambahan penduduk, menimbulkan cabaran besar terhadap kualiti air. Makalah ini menyoroti cabaran utama dan kemungkinan penyelesaian terhadap pengurusan kualiti air di Malaysia.

 

Kata kunci: Geologi; hidrogeologi; kualiti air; pencemaran mikrob; Semenanjung Malaysia

 

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