Sains Malaysiana 50(8)(2021): 2207-2218

http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2021-5008-06

 

 Effects of Different Drying Methods and Solvents on Biological Activities of Curcuma aeruginosa Leaves Extract

(Kesan Kaedah Pengeringan dan Pelarut Berbeza pada Aktiviti Biologi Ekstrak Daun Curcuma aeruginosa)

 

WAN NAJIYAH HANUN WAN NASIR1, NURUL NAJIHA AIN IBRAHIM1, WOON KUO HAO1, AZLIANA ABU BAKAR SAJAK3, NOOR-SOFFALINA SOFIAN-SENG1,2, WAN AIDA WAN MUSTAPHA1,2 & HAFEEDZA ABDUL RAHMAN1,2*

 

1Department of Food Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

 

2Innovation Centre for Confectionery Technology (MANIS), Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

 

3Department of Nutrition, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

 

Diserahkan: 3 Mac 2020/Diterima: 29 Disember 2020

 

ABSTRACT

Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. is one of the plants from the Zingiberaceae family which the rhizome has been used for medicinal purposes. However, the biological properties of the leaves have not been fully explored. Therefore, this study was conducted to evaluate the effects of different drying methods and solvents on total phenolic content, antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic activities of C. aeruginosa leaf extract. Samples were dried by oven drying (OD) and freeze drying (FD), and then extracted using different ratios of ethanol:water (100:0, 50:50 and 0:100). The amount of phenolic content (TPC) was determined using a spectrophotometer. Antioxidant activity was tested using the Free Radical Scavenging (DPPH) test and the Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP), while the anti-hyperglycemic test was evaluated by determining the percentage of α-glucosidase inhibition. The results showed that FD at 100:0 and 50:50 concentrations had the highest phenolic content (30.88 and 33.06 mg GAE/g extract, respectively) and highest antioxidant activity value (38.24 and 42.46 mg TEAC/g extract, respectively). For DPPH, FD at 50:50 showed the highest inhibition of 71.48% compared to other extracts. Whereas FD at 100:0, 50:50 and 0:100 showed the highest α-glucosidase inhibition of 25.65, 30.78 and 27.65%, respectively. However, compared to Quercetin, the extract showed mild anti-hyperglycemic activity. The results indicated that FD is the best method of drying while 50:50 showed as the best solvents. Positive correlation between TPC with antioxidant and anti-hyperglycemic activities showed that C. aeruginosa leaf has potential as a source of natural antioxidant with the presence of phenolic compounds.

 

Keywords: Anti-hyperglycemic; antioxidant; freeze drying; oven drying; phenolic

 

ABSTRAK

Curcuma aeruginosa Roxb. merupakan tumbuhan daripada famili Zingiberaceae yang mana rizomnya telah digunakan secara tradisi untuk tujuan perubatan. Namun begitu, aktiviti biologi daripada bahagian daun masih belum diterokai secara meluas. Oleh itu, penyelidikan ini dijalankan untuk mengkaji kesan kaedah pengeringan dan penggunaan nisbah pelarut yang berbeza terhadap jumlah kandungan fenol, aktiviti antioksidan dan anti-hiperglisemik ekstrak daun C. aeruginosa. Pengeringan ketuhar (PK) dan pengeringan sejuk beku (PB) telah digunakan untuk mengeringkan daun dan kemudiannya diekstrak menggunakan etanol:air dengan nisbah berbeza (100:0, 50:50 dan 0:100). Spektrofotometer telah digunakan untuk menentukan jumlah kandungan fenol (TPC) pada ekstrak. Aktiviti antioksidan pula telah diuji dengan menggunakan ujian Pemerangkapan Radikal Bebas (DPPH) dan ujian Penurunan Ferik (FRAP), manakala ujian anti-hiperglisemik pula dinilai dengan menentukan peratusan perencatan α-glukosidase. Hasil menunjukkan bahawa PB pada kepekatan 100:0 dan 50:50 mempunyai kandungan fenol tertinggi (masing-masing 30.88 dan 33.06 mg GAE/g ekstrak) dan nilai aktiviti antioksidan paling tinggi (masing-masing 38.24 dan 42.46 mg TEAC/g ekstrak). Bagi DPPH, PB 50:50 menunjukkan peratusan perencatan tertinggi sebanyak 71.48% apabila dibandingkan dengan ekstrak lain. PB pada 100:0, 50:50 dan 0:100 menunjukkan perencatan α-glukosidase tertinggi masing-masing sebanyak 25.65, 30.78 dan 27.65%. Namun begitu, apabila dibandingkan dengan Kuersetin, ekstrak menunjukkan aktiviti anti-hiperglisemik yang rendah. Keputusan ini menunjukkan bahawa PB adalah kaedah pengeringan terbaik manakala pelarut 50:50 merupakan pelarut paling sesuai untuk pengekstrakan daun C. aeruginosa. Korelasi positif antara TPC dengan aktiviti antioksidan dan anti-hiperglisemik menunjukkan bahawa C. aeruginosa mempunyai potensi sebagai sumber antioksidan semula jadi dengan kehadiran sebatian fenol.

 

Kata kunci: Anti-hiperglisemik; antioksidan; fenol; pengeringan beku; pengeringan ketuhar

 

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