Sains Malaysiana 50(9)(2021): 2653-2661

http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2021-5009-13

 

Prosedur Pengekstrakan untuk Analisis Logam Berat dalam Tisu Tumbuhan dan Persekitaran Hevea brasiliensis

(Extraction Procedures for Heavy Metals Analysis in Plant Tissues and Surrounding Soils of Hevea brasiliensis)

 

MUHAMMAD JEFRI MOHD YUSOF1, MOHD TALIB LATIF2 & SITI FAIRUS MOHD YUSOFF1*

 

1Jabatan Sains Kimia, Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

 

2Jabatan Sains Bumi dan Persekitaran, Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

 

Diserahkan: 26 November 2020/Diterima: 17 Januari 2021

 

ABSTRAK

Pengukuran logam berat dalam sampel tumbuhan berguna untuk menunjukkan kualiti udara persekitaran yang diserap. Walau bagaimanapun, ikatan logam berat dengan matriks organik memerlukan kaedah pengekstrakan yang sesuai untuk melepaskannya kerana cara penjerapan yang berbeza mengikut sampel. Dalam kajian ini, kami meneroka beberapa kaedah pengekstrakan untuk menghasilkan kepekatan logam berat yang maksimum dalam sampel pokok Hevea brasiliensis dan tanah sekitarnya di Bentong, Pahang, Malaysia. Pengesktrakan yang maksimum adalah penting untuk memberikan maklumat analisis logam berat yang sebenar. Rendaman sejuk, pengekstrakan ultrasonik, pencernaan gelombang mikro, teknik pengeringan abu dan pencernaan asid panas dilakukan dan dibandingkan dengan analisis logam berat dalam sampel tanah, daun, kulit pokok dan lateks. Seterusnya, kandungan logam berat tersebut dikuantifikasi menggunakanspektrofotometer pancaran plasma-gandingan aruhan (ICP-OES). Hasilnya, setiap sampel didapati memerlukan kaedah pencernaan yang eksklusif untuk mengekstrak logam berat dengan jumlah tertinggi. Teknik pencernaan asid panas dan pengeringan abu adalah kaedah pencernaan yang paling sesuai, masing-masing untuk tanah dan getah, manakala pencernaan gelombang mikro mengekstrak logam paling berat dalam sampel daun dan kulit pokok. Antara semua sampel tanaman, daun memerangkap paling banyak logam paling berat (767.4 mg/kg) diikuti oleh kulit kayu (600.2 mg/kg) dan lateks (185.4 mg/kg). Analisis logam berat melaporkan nilai faktor pengayaan (EF) logam berat yang tinggi (EF > 10) menerangkan kepekatan logam berat yang tinggi dalam setiap sampel. Selain itu, pengiraan faktor biokepekatan (BCF) membuktikan bahawa logam berat dalam sampel datang daripada sampel tanah melalui sistem akar pokok apabila nilai BCF > 1.

 

Kata kunci: Biomonitor; Hevea brasiliensis; logam berat; pencernaan asid; pengekstrakan

 

ABSTRACT

The quantification of heavy metals in plant’s samples is useful to imply the quality of environmental air that is being absorbed. However, the binding of heavy metals with organic matrices requires suitable extraction method to leach them apart due to different adsorption manners. In this study, we explored several extraction methods to yield maximum concentrations of heavy metals in plant samples of Hevea brasiliensis and its surrounding soils in Bentong, Pahang, Malaysia. This is crucial to obtain precise output for heavy metals analysis. Maceration, ultrasonic extraction, acid-assisted microwave digestion, ash drying technique, and hot acid digestion were performed and compared on our heavy metals analysis in soils, leaves, tree barks and latex. Next, the heavy metals contents in those samples were quantified using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). As a result, each sample demanded their exclusive digestion method to extract the highest amounts of heavy metals. Hot acid digestion and ash drying technique were the most suitable digestion method for soils and latex, respectively, whereby, microwave-assisted acid digestion extracted the most heavy metals in both leaves and tree barks. Of all plant samples, leaves trapped the most heavy metals (767.4 mg/kg) followed by tree barks (600.2 mg/kg) and latex (185.4 mg/kg). High enrichment factor, EF (EF > 10) justified the increased heavy metals in each sample. Besides, bioconcentration factor (BCF) with the value above 1 proved that the heavy metals in plant’s samples were up took from soils via root system.

 

Keywords: Acid digestion; biomonitoring; extraction; heavy metals; Hevea brasiliensis

 

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