Sains Malaysiana 51(9)(2022): 2897-2911


Profiling of Volatile Compounds in Beef, Rat, and Wild Boar Meat using SPME-GC/MS

(Pemprofilan Sebatian Meruap dalam Daging Lembu, Tikus dan Babi Hutan menggunakan SPME-GC/MS)




1Department of Food Science and Technology, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

2Djuanda University, Faculty of Halal Food Science, Department of Food Technology and Nutrition, Bogor 16720, Indonesia

3Department of Chemistry, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

4Halal Science Center, IPB University, Bogor 16129, Indonesia

5The Assessment Institute for Foods, Drugs and Cosmetics, Indonesian Council of Ulama

Bogor, Indonesia


Diserahkan: 4 Januari 2022/Diterima: 27 Mac 2022




The high beef price triggers adulteration of beef and other non-halal animal meat, such as wild boar and rats. An appropriate and effective analytical method is needed to differentiate halal and non-halal animal meat. The SPME/GC-MS method could authenticate meat based on specific volatile compounds in each meat. The objective of this study was to characterize volatile compounds and determine the volatile marker in raw beef, rat, wild boar meat, and their mixtures using SPME/GC-MS. The chemometrics of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) classified raw beef, rat, wild boar, and their mixture. Correlation coefficients and VIP values were used to determine the volatile marker compounds for each meat in the OPLS-DA classes. The OPLS-DA results that the most robust marker in the beef class was dimethylfulvene, benzyl alcohol in the rat class, and 1,3,5-cycloheptatriene in the wild boar class. Furthermore, the most robust marker in the mixture of beef and rat class was benzaldehyde, 3-ethyl-, while 2,6-dimethyldecane was dominant in the mixture of beef and wild boar class. However, further study using larger number of samples which include commercial meat is required to confirm these results.


Keywords: Adulteration; chemometric; meat; OPLS-DA; volatile



Harga daging lembu yang tinggi mencetuskan pengadukan daging lembu dan daging haiwan lain yang tidak halal, seperti babi hutan dan tikus. Kaedah analisis yang sesuai dan berkesan diperlukan untuk membezakan daging haiwan yang halal dan tidak halal. Kaedah SPME/GC-MS boleh mengesahkan daging berdasarkan sebatian meruap tertentu dalam setiap daging. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mencirikan sebatian meruap dan menentukan penanda meruap dalam daging lembu mentah, tikus, daging babi hutan dan campurannya menggunakan SPME/GC-MS. Kemometrik analisis komponen utama (PCA) dan unjuran ortogon kepada analisis struktur-diskriminasi terpendam (OPLS-DA) mengelaskan daging mentah, tikus, babi hutan dan campurannya. Pekali korelasi dan nilai VIP digunakan untuk menentukan sebatian penanda yang tidak menentu bagi setiap daging dalam kelas OPLS-DA. Keputusan OPLS-DA bahawa penanda paling teguh dalam kelas daging lembu ialah dimetilfulvene, alkohol benzil dalam kelas tikus dan 1,3,5-cycloheptatriene dalam kelas babi hutan. Tambahan pula, penanda yang paling kukuh dalam campuran kelas daging lembu dan tikus ialah benzaldehid, 3-etil-, manakala 2,6-dimetildekana adalah dominan dalam campuran daging lembu dan kelas babi hutan. Walau bagaimanapun, kajian lanjut menggunakan bilangan sampel yang lebih besar termasuk daging komersial diperlukan untuk mengesahkan keputusan ini.


Kata kunci: Daging; kemometrik; meruap; OPLS-DA; pengadukan



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