Sains Malaysiana 51(9)(2022): 3081-3094

http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2022-5109-27

 

Potensi Bioremediasi Plastik Polietilena Tereftalat (PET)

(Bioremediation Potential of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Plastics)

 

KHALIDA KHALIL1, WAN SYAIDATUL AQMA1,*, NAZLINA HAIZA MOHD YASIN1, MOHAMAD YUSOF MASKAT2 & ISHAK AHMAD3

 

1Jabatan Sains Biologi dan Bioteknologi, Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

2Jabatan Sains Makanan, Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

3Jabatan Sains Kimia, Fakulti Sains dan Teknologi, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia

  Diserahkan: 26 Februari 2022/Diterima: 17 Mei 2022

  Abstrak

Penghasilan plastik yang mesra ekonomi dan kepelbagaian penggunaannya menyebabkan permintaan terhadap plastik meningkat setiap tahun. Antaranya adalah plastik jenis polietilena tereftalat (PET) yang dihasilkan melalui pempolimeran dua monomer iaitu asid tereftalik (TPA) dan etilena glikol (EG). PET menjadi pilihan dalam produk pembungkusan makanan dan minuman kerana cirinya yang tahan haba, tahan lama, mudah dibentuk dan ringan serta kos penghasilan yang murah. Walau bagaimanapun, hal ini telah menjadikan PET sebagai pencemar alam sekitar kerana penggunaannya berjangka pendek dan pakai buang, serta sukar untuk dicuraikan secara semula jadi dan dikitar semula. PET juga berupaya menjadi mendakan kerana mempunyai kehabluran dan ketumpatan yang tinggi seterusnya menghasilkan mikroplastik bersaiz <5 mm yang berpotensi menjadi ancaman kepada rantai makanan. Kaedah bioremediasi antara salah satu alternatif yang boleh dilaksanakan dalam menangani masalah lambakan bahan buangan plastik PET. Justeru, ulasan ini akan membincangkan empat pendekatan bioremediasi dengan penggunaan bakteria sebagai agen biopencurai PET melalui penggunaan (1) bakteria penghasil biofilem, (2) biosurfaktan, (3) biotinjauan secara pendekatan biologi molekul dan (4) aplikasi bio-pembawa yang boleh dilaksanakan dalam menguraikan bahan buangan PET.

 

Kata kunci: Asid tereftalik (TPA); biofilem; biosurfaktan; bio-pembawa; etilena glikol (EG)

 

Abstract

The production of economically friendly plastics and their diversity of uses cause the demand for plastics to increase every year. Among them are polyethylene terephthalate (PET) type plastics produced through the polymerization of two monomers, namely terephthalic acid (TPA) and ethylene glycol (EG). PET is the choice in food and beverage packaging products because of its heat-resistant, durable, easy-to-mold and lightweight features as well as low production costs. However, this has made PET an environmental pollutant due to its short -term use and disposable, as well as the difficulty to decompose naturally and recycled.  PET is also capable to precipitate due to its high crystallinity and density which in turn produced microplastics of size <5 mm which are potentially a threat to the food chain. Bioremediation methods are among the alternatives that can be implemented in dealing with the problem of PET plastic waste abundance. Thus, this review will discuss four bioremediation approaches with the use of bacteria as PET biodegrader using (1) biofilms producing bacteria, (2) biosurfactants, (3) molecular biology approach and (4) feasible bio-carrier applications in decompose PET waste.

 

Keywords: Biofilms; biosurfactant; bio-carrier; ethylene glycol (EG); terephthalic acid (TPA)

 

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