Sains Malaysiana 52(5)(2023): 1435-1451

http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2023-5205-09

 

Effect of Alkali Treatment and Fibre Composition on the Performance of Pineapple Leaf Fibre-Polyvinyl Alcohol Composites

(Kesan Rawatan Alkali dan Komposisi Serat terhadap Prestasi Komposit Alkohol Serat-Polivinil Daun Nanas)

 

HANIS NURAFIQAH ZUBAIRI1, NOORDINI M. SALLEH2 & NOR MAS MIRA ABD RAHMAN1,*

 

1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory, Malaysia

2Centre for Fundamental and Frontier Sciences in Nanostructure Self-Assembly, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory, Malaysia

 

Diserahkan: 18 Oktober 2022/Diterima: 7 April 2023

 

Abstract

This paper studied the properties of composites based on polyvinyl alcohol reinforced with pineapple leaf fibres (PALF/PVA). The surface of pineapple leaf fibres (PALF) has been previously treated with 6% sodium hydroxide solution. The influence of fibre loading and fibre surface treatment were examined. Analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) displayed physico-chemical changes on treated PALF/PVA composites compared to untreated PALF/PVA composites. The results from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) showed that the introduction of untreated PALF into the composites enhanced the thermal stability of the composites. Progressive improvement of thermal stability was discovered by associating treated PALF with the composites. The treated PALF composites produced also improved mechanical properties with increasing fibre content. Differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analyses showed no significant changes in melting temperatures upon incorporating untreated PALF into the PALF/PVA composites. The best improvement in tensile strength value was obtained for treated PALF composite having 3 wt% of fibre loading, with enhancements of about 11% and 54%, compared to untreated PALF composites and plain PVA matrix, respectively.

 

Keywords: Alkali treatment; interfacial adhesion; MD2-pineapple leaf fibres; polymer composites; polyvinyl alcohol

 

Abstrak

Kertas ini mengkaji sifat komposit berdasarkan polivinil alkohol yang diperkuat dengan serat daun nanas (PALF/PVA). Permukaan serat daun nanas (PALF) sebelum ini telah dirawat dengan larutan natrium hidroksida 6%. Pengaruh komposisi serat dan rawatan permukaan serat telah dikaji. Analisis oleh Fourier-transformasi infra merah (FTIR) dan pembelauan sinar-X (XRD) memaparkan perubahan fiziko-kimia pada komposit PALF/PVA yang dirawat berbanding komposit PALF/PVA yang tidak dirawat. Keputusan daripada analisis termogravimetri (TGA) menunjukkan bahawa kehadiran PALF yang tidak dirawat ke dalam komposit meningkatkan kestabilan terma komposit. Peningkatan progresif kestabilan terma ditemui dengan kehadiran PALF yang dirawat di dalam komposit. Peningkatan kandungan serat yang dirawat di dalam komposit juga didapati menyebabkan peningkatan dalam sifat mekanikal. Analisis kalorimetrik pengimbasan pembezaan (DSC) menunjukkan tiada perubahan ketara dalam suhu lebur apabila PALF yang tidak dirawat digabungkan ke dalam komposit PALF/PVA. Penambahbaikan paling terbaik dalam nilai kekuatan tegangan diperoleh oleh komposit dengan PALF yang dirawat pada kandungan serat 3 wt% dengan peningkatan sebanyak 11% dan 54%, berbanding komposit PALF yang tidak dirawat dan matriks PVA.

 

Kata kunci: Komposit polimer; lekatan antara muka; polivinil alkohol; rawatan alkali; serat daun nanas MD-2

 

RUJUKAN

Akhtar, M.N., Sulong, A.B., Radzi, M.K.F., Ismail, N.F., Raza, M.R., Muhamad, N. & Khan, M.A. 2016. Influence of alkaline treatment and fiber loading on the physical and mechanical properties of kenaf/polypropylene composites for variety of applications.  Progress in Natural Science: Materials International 26(6): 657-664.

Amash, A. & Zugenmaier, P. 2000. Morphology and properties of isotropic and oriented samples of cellulose fibre–polypropylene composites. Polymer 41(4): 1589-1596.

Amiandamhen, S., Meincken, M. & Tyhoda, L. 2020. Natural fibre modification and its influence on fibre-matrix interfacial properties in biocomposite materials. Fibers and Polymers 21: 677-689.

Asim, M., Jawaid, M., Abdan, K. & Nasir, M. 2018. Effect of alkali treatments on physical and mechanical strength of pineapple leaf fibres. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 290(1): 012030.

Asim, M., Abdan, K., Jawaid, M., Nasir, M., Dashtizadeh, Z., Ishak, M. & Hoque, M.E. 2015. A review on pineapple leaves fibre and its composites. International Journal of Polymer Science 6: 1-16.

Challabi, A., Chieng, B.W., Ibrahim, N., Ariffin, H. & Zainuddin, N. 2019. Effect of superheated steam treatment on the mechanical properties and dimensional stability of PALF/PLA biocomposite. Polymers 11(3): 482.

Chand, N. & Fahim, M. 2021. 1 - Natural fibers and their composites. In Tribology of Natural Fiber Polymer Composites. 2nd ed. Woodhead Publishing.

Chü, N. 1970. The conformation of the anhydrocellobiose units in cellulose I and II.  Journal of Applied Polymer Science 14(12): 3129-3136.

Devi, L.U., Bhagawan, S.S. & Thomas, S. 1997. Mechanical properties of pineapple leaf fiber-reinforced polyester composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 64(9): 1739-1748.

Fan, M. & Naughton, A. 2016. Mechanisms of thermal decomposition of natural fibre composites. Composites Part B: Engineering 88: 1-10.

Fiore, V., Di Bella, G. & Valenza, A. 2015. The effect of alkaline treatment on mechanical properties of kenaf fibers and their epoxy composites. Composites Part B: Engineering 68: 14-21.

Hamidon, M.H., Sultan, M.T.H., Ariffin, A.H. & Shah, A.U.M. 2019. Effects of fibre treatment on mechanical properties of kenaf fibre reinforced composites: A review. Journal of Materials Research and Technology 8(3): 3327-3337.

Haz, A., Jablonsky, M., Surina, I., Kačík, F., Bubenikova, T. & Durkovic, J. 2019. Chemical composition and thermal behavior of kraft lignins. Forests 10: 483.

Hidalgo-Salazar, M.A., Mina, J.H. & Herrera-Franco, P.J. 2013. The effect of interfacial adhesion on the creep behaviour of LDPE–Al–Fique composite materials. Composites Part B: Engineering 55: 345-351.

Hollaway, L.C. 2011. 1 - Key issues in the use of fibre reinforced polymer (FRP) composites in the rehabilitation and retrofitting of concrete structures. In Service Life Estimation and Extension of Civil Engineering Structures. Woodhead Publishing.

Islam, M., Pickering, K. & Foreman, N. 2011. Influence of alkali fiber treatment and fiber processing on the mechanical properties of hemp/epoxy composites. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 119: 3696-3707.

Ismail, N. & Ishak, Z. 2018. Effect of fiber loading on mechanical and water absorption capacity of polylactic acid/polyhydroxybutyrate-co-hydroxyhexanoate/kenaf composite. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering 368: 012014.

Jayasekara, R., Harding, I., Bowater, I., Christie, G.B.Y. & Lonergan, G.T. 2004. Preparation, surface modification and characterisation of solution cast starch PVA blended films.  Polymer Testing 23(1): 17-27.

Jin, E., Guo, J., Yang, F., Zhu, Y., Song, J., Jin, Y. & Rojas, O.J. 2016. On the polymorphic and morphological changes of cellulose nanocrystals (CNC-I) upon mercerization and conversion to CNC-II. Carbohydrate Polymers 143: 327-335.

Joseph, S.T., Pillai, C.K.S., Prasad, V.S., Groeninckx, G. & Sarkissova, M. 2003. The thermal and crystallisation studies of short sisal fibre reinforced polypropylene composites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 34: 253-266.

Kabir, M.M., Wang, H., Aravinthan, T., Cardona, F. & Lau, K.T. 2011. Effects of natural fibre surface on composite properties: A review. Proceedings of the 1st International Postgraduate Conference on Engineering, Designing and Developing the Built Environment for Sustainable Wellbeing (eddBE 2011). pp. 94-99.

Kalambettu, A., Damodaran, A., Dharmalingam, S. & Vallam. 2015. Evaluation of biodegradation of pineapple leaf fiber reinforced PVA composites. Journal of Natural Fibers 12: 39-51.

Karimi, K. & Taherzadeh, M.J. 2016. A critical review of analytical methods in pretreatment of lignocelluloses: Composition, imaging, and crystallinity. Bioresource Technology 200: 1008-1018.

Liu, W., Misra, M., Askeland, P., Drzal, L.T. & Mohanty, A.K. 2005. ‘Green’ composites from soy based plastic and pineapple leaf fiber: Fabrication and properties evaluation.  Polymer 46(8): 2710-2721.

Lopattananon, N., Panawarangkul, K., Sahakaro, K. & Ellis, B. 2006. Performance of pineapple leaf fiber–natural rubber composites: The effect of fiber surface treatments.  Journal of Applied Polymer Science 102(2): 1974-1984.

Lu, Y., Lu, Y.C., Hu, H.Q., Xie, F.J., Wei, X.Y. & Fan, X. 2017. Structural characterization of lignin and its degradation products with spectroscopic methods. Journal of Spectroscopy 2017: 8951658.

McKeen, L.W. 2017. Introduction to the mechanical, thermal, and permeation properties of plastics and elastomer films. In Film Properties of Plastics and Elastomers. 4th ed. William Andrew Publishing.