Sains Malaysiana 44(8)(2015): 1159–1166


Impact of Pandan Leaf Extract Addition on the Oxidative Degradation of Sunflower Oil during Microwave Heating

(Kesan Penambahan Ekstrak Daun Pandan pada Pencemaran Oksidatif Minyak Bunga Matahari

semasa Pemanasan Ketuhar Gelombang Mikro)





1Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Applied Science and Engineering, Rajshahi University of Engineering & Technology, Rajshahi-6204, Bangladesh


2Department of Bioprocess Engineering, Faculty of Chemical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, 81310 Skudai, Johor Darul Takzim, Malaysia


Received: 31 August 2014/Accepted: 11 March 2015



The efficacy of pandan leaf extract (PLE) addition on the oxidative degradation of sunflower oil (SFO) during microwave heating was studied. 80% of methanol extract showed better antioxidant action than the 100% methanol or ethanol extract and the total phenolic contents, DPPH radical scavenging activity and linoleic acid system of PLE were found to be 1845.50 mg GAE/100 g, 60.62-89.87% and 82.21%, respectively. 80% of methanolic extracts at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.4 wt. %) were added to SFO. The antioxidant treated and control oil samples were subjected to microwave heating and were analyzed at regular intervals for the extent of oxidative changes following the measurements of peroxide value, p-anisidine value, TOTOX, free fatty acid, specific extinction, iodine value, viscosity, polar compounds and fatty acid composition. The PLE were found to be quite effective towards suppressing the primary and secondary oxidation products in the tested oil. The order of effectiveness (p<0.05) was BHA > 0.4% PLE > 0.2% PLE > 0.1% PLE > control. The present results suggested that antioxidant extract from pandan leaf might be used to protect vegetable oils from oxidation.


Keywords: Antioxidants; fatty acids; microwave heating; oxidative stability; sunflower oil



Keberkesanan penambahan ekstrak (PLE) daun pandan pada pencemaran oksidatif minyak bunga matahari (SFO) dalam ketuhar gelombang mikro dikaji. 80% ekstrak metanol menunjukkan tindakan antioksidan yang lebih baik daripada 100% metanol atau ekstrak etanol, jumlah kandungan fenolik, aktiviti skavengan radikal DPPH dan sistem asid linoleik PLE yang masing-masing ialah 1845.50 mg GAE/100 g, 60.6-89.87% dan 82.21%. 80% ekstrak metanolik pada kepekatan berbeza (0.1, 0.2 dan 0.4 wt. %) telah ditambah ke SFO. Sampel minyak terawat antioksidan dan kawalan melalui pemanasan ketuhar gelombang mikro dianalisis pada selang yang tetap untuk tahap perubahan oksidatif berikutan pengukuran nilai peroksida, nilai p-anisidine, TOTOX, asid bebas lemak, kepupusan tertentu, nilai iodin, kelikatan, sebatian kutub dan komposisi asid lemak. PLE didapati berkesan dalam menahan pengoksidaan primer dan sekunder dalam minyak yang diuji. Tahap keberkesanan (p<0.05) adalah BHA > 0.4% PLE > 0.2% PLE > 0.1% PLE > kawalan. Keputusan kajian mencadangkan bahawa ekstrak antioksidan daripada daun pandan boleh digunakan untuk melindungi minyak sayuran daripada pengoksidaan.


Kata kunci: Antioksidan; asid lemak; kestabilan oksidatif; minyak bunga matahari; pemanasan ketuhar gelombang mikro


Al-Kahtani, H. 1991. Survey of quality of used frying oils from restaurants. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society 68: 857-862.

Anwar, F., Qayyum, H.M.A., Abdullah Ijaz Hussain, A.L. & Iqbal, S. 2010. Antioxidant activity of 100% and 80% methanol extracts from barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare L.): Stabilization of sunflower oil. Grasas Y Aceites 61: 237-243.

AOCS. 1987. Official Methods and Recommended Practices of the American Oil Chemists’ Society. 4th ed. Champaign: AOCS press.

Bhattacharjee, P., Kshirsagar, A. & Singhal, R.S. 2005. Supercritical carbon dioxide extraction of 2-cetyl-1-pyrroline from Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Food Chemistry 91: 255-259.

Blois, M.S. 1958. Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181: 1199-1200.

Bushra, S., Farooq, A. & Roman, P. 2007. Antioxidant potential of corncob extracts for stabilization of corn oil subjected to microwave heating. Food Chemistry 104: 997-1005.

Che Man, Y.B. & Tan, C.P. 1999. Effects of natural and synthetic antioxidants on changes in refined, bleached, and deodorized palm olein during deep-fat frying of potato chips. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society 76: 332-339.

Dobarganes, M.C., Velasco, J. & Dieffenbacher, A. 2000. Determination of polar compounds, polymerized and oxidized triacylglycerols and diacylglycerols in oils and fats. Pure and Applied Chemistry 72: 1563-1575.

Huang, A.S., Hsieh, O.A.L., Huang, C.L. & Chang, S.S. 1981. A comparison of the stability of sunflower oil and corn oil. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society 58: 997-1001.

Hussain, A.I., Anwar, F., Sherazi, S.T.H. & Przybylski, R. 2008. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (Ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal variations. Food Chemistry 108: 986-995.

Iqbal, S., Bhanger, M.I. & Anwar, F. 2005. Antioxidant properties and components of some commercially available varieties of rice bran in Pakistan. Food Chemistry 93: 265-272.

Jimtaisong, A. & Krisdaphong, P. 2013. Antioxidant activity of Pandanus amaryllifolius leaf and root extract and its application in topical emulsion. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 12: 425-431.

Kikuzaki, H. & Nakatani, N. 1993. Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents. Journal of Food Science 58: 1407-1410.

Labuza, T.P. 1971. Kinetics of lipid oxidation in foods. CRC Critical Reviews in Food Technology 2: 355-404.

Laguerre, M., Lecomte, J. & Villeneuve, P. 2007. Evaluation of the ability of antioxidants to counteract lipid oxidation: Existing methods, new trends and challenges. Progress in Lipid Research 46: 244-282.

Lister, E. & Wilson, P. 2001. Measurement of total phenolics and ABTS assay for antioxidant activity (personal communication). Lincoln, New Zealand: Crop Research Institute.

Malheiro, R., Casal, S., Lamas, H., Bento, A. & Pereira, J.A. 2012. Can tea extracts protect extra virgin olive oil from oxidation during microwave heating? Food Research International 48: 148-154.

Matthaus, B. 2006. Utilization of high-oleic rapeseed oil for deep fat frying of French fries compared to other commonly used edible oils. European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology 108: 200-211.

PORIM. 1995. PORIM Test Methods. Malaysia: Palm Oil Research Institute of Malaysia.

Ricardo, M., Nuno, R., Gabriel, M., Albino, B., José, A.P. & Susana, C. 2013. The use of olive leaves and tea extracts as effective antioxidants against the oxidation of soybean oil under microwave heating. Industrial Crops and Products 44: 37-43.

Rodrigues, N., Malheiro, R., Casal, S., Manzanera, M.C., Asensio, S., Bento, A. & Pereira, J.A. 2012. Influence of spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia Med.) essential oil in the quality, stability and composition of soybean oil during microwave heating. Food and Chemical Toxicology 50: 2894-2901.

Shahidi, F. & Wanasundara, U.N. 2002. Methods for measuring oxidative rancidity in fats and oils. In Food Lipids: Chemistry, Nutrition, and Biotechnology, edited by Akoh, C.C. & Min, D.B. 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker, Inc. pp. 465-482.

Velioglu, Y.S., Mazza, G., Gao, L. & Oomah, B.D. 1998. Antioxidant activity and total phenolics in selected fruits, efetablesans grain products. Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry 46: 4113-4117.

Wakte, K.V., Thengane, R.J., Jawali, N. & Nadaf, A.B. 2010. Optimization of HS-SPME conditions for quantification of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline and study of other volatiles in Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. Food Chemistry 121: 595-600.

Wu, P.F. & Nawar, W.W. 1986. A technique for monitoring the quality of used frying oils. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society 63: 1363-1367.

Yoshida, H., Tatsumi, M. & Kajimoto, G. 1992. Influence of fatty acids on the tocopherol stability in vegetable oils during microwave heating. Journal of American Oil Chemists Society 69: 119-125.

Zia-Ur-Rehman, Salariya, A. & Habib, F. 2003. Antioxidant activity of ginger extract in sunflower oil. Journal of the Science, Food and Agriculture 83: 624-629.



*Corresponding author; email: