Sains Malaysiana 44(9)(2015): 1275–1281


Germination Behaviour of 6 × 6 Diallel Hybrids of an Energy Crop Jatropha curcas L.

(Kelakuan Percambahan Hibrid Dialel 6 × 6 Tanaman Penghasil Tenaga Jatropha curcas L.)




1Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur 1706, Bangladesh


2Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


3Department of Mechanical and Material Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia



Diserahkan: 12 Mac 2014/Diterima: 19 Mei 2015



The seeds of 6 × 6 half diallel progenies of Jatropha curcas were used to evaluate the effects of genotypes (parents and their hybrids) on germination traits of jatropha at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Germination traits were varied significantly (p<0.01) among the seeds of hybrids and their parents. The germination was started at four days after planting and prolonged until 15 days. Seed germination varied from 58.06 to 92.76% among the parents and 53.43 to 98.96% among the hybrids. The highest germination was observed in the hybrid P2 × P4 and none of the hybrid or parent showed complete (100%) germination. The maximum GI (germination index) and SVI (seedling vigour index) were found in the hybrids P1 × P5 and P1 × P2 and the lowest in P2 × P4 and P3 × P6, respectively. For most germination parameters parents behaved poorly than that of the hybrids.


Keywords: Biofuel; diallel; germination index; hybrid; seedling vigour



Biji benih progeni dialel separa 6 × 6 telah digunakan untuk menilai kesan genotip (induk dan hibridnya) terhadap ciri percambahan Jatropha curcas di Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Ciri percambahan didapati berbeza secara bererti (p<0.1) pada biji benih hibrid dan induknya. Percambahan dimulakan pada hari ke empat selepas penyemaian dan dibiarkan sehingga 15 hari. Percambahan biji benih adalah berbeza-beza dari 58.06 hingga 92.76% antara induk dan dari 53.4 hingga 98.96% antara hibrid. Percambahan tertinggi dicerap pada hibrid P2 × P4 dan tiada percambahan 100% ditunjukkan oleh hibrid dan induk. Indeks percambahan GI dan indeks kecergasan anak benih SVI didapati paling tinggi masing-masing pada P1 × P5 dan P1 × P2 dan paling rendah pada P2 × P4 and P3 × P6. Kebanyakan parameter percambahan pada induk menunjukkan nilai yang kurang baik berbanding hibridnya.


Kata kunci: Bahan api biologi; dialel; hibrid; indeks percambahan; kecergasan anak benih


Arnold, M.H., Longden, P.C., Brown, S.J., Curtis, G.J., Fletcher, R. & Lynch, K.W. 1984. Environmental, seed quality, and yield in sugar beet. J. Nat. Inst. Agric. Bot. 16: 543-553.

Association of Official Seed Analysis (AOSA). 1991. Rules for testing seeds. J. Seed Technol. 12: 18-19.

Association of Official Seed Analysis (AOSA). 1983. Seed Vigor Testing Handbook. Contribution No. 32 to the Handbook on Seed Testing.

Bevington, J. 1986. Geographic differences in the seed germination of paper birch (Betula papyrifera). Am. J. Bot. 73: 564-573.

Bewley, J.D. & Black, M. 1982. Physiology and Biochemistry of Seeds in Relation to Germination. New York: Springer- Verlag.

Coolbear, P., Francis, A. & Grierson, D. 1984. The effect of low temperature pre-sowing treatment under the germination performance and membrane integrity of artificially aged tomato seeds. J. Exp. Bot. 35: 1609-1617.

Dehgan, B. 1984. Phylogenetic significance of interspecific hybridization in Jatropha (Euphobiaceae). Syst. Bot. 9: 467-478.

Dezfuli, P.M., Sharif-Zadeh, F. & Janmohammadi, M. 2008. Influence of priming techniques on seed germination behavior of maize inbred lines (Zea mays L.). ARPN J. Agric. Biol. Sci. 3(3): 22-25.

Ellis, R.A. & Roberts, E.H. 1981. The quantification of ageing and survival in orthodox seeds. Seed Sci. Technol. 9: 373- 409.

Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Warraich, E.A. & Khaliq, A. 2006. Optimization of hyropriming techniques for rice seed invigoration. Seed Sci. Technol. 34: 529-534.

Grange, S., Leskovar, D.I., Pike, L.M. & Cobb, B.G. 2003. Seedcoat structure and oxygen enhanced environments affect germination of triploid watermelon. J. Amer. Soc. Hort. Sci. 128: 253-259.

Grimm, C. 1996. The Jatropha project in Nicaragua. Bagani Tulu (Mali) 1: 10-14.

Hacker, J.B., Andrew, M.H., McIvor, J.G. & Mott, J.J. 1984. Evaluation in contrasting climates of dormancy characteristics of seed of Digitaria milanjiana. J. Appl. Ecol. 21: 961-969.

Hardin, E.D. 1984. Variation in seed weight, number per capsule and germination in Populus deltoides Bartr. trees in southeastern Ohio. J. Appl. Ecol. 112: 29-34.

Hartmann, H.T., Kester, D.E. & Davies, T.F. 1990. Principal of propagation by seed. In Plant Propagation, Principals and Practices. New Jersey: Prentice-Hall International, Inc. pp. 104-136.

Heller, J. 1996. Physic nut (Jatropha curcas L.). Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crop, 1. Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben/ International Plant Genetic Resources Institute, Rome.

Henning, R. 2000. The Jatropha Manual. A guide to the Integrated Exploitation of the Jatropha Plant in Zambia. Bagani GbR. Produced for GTZ. GTZ-ASIP-Support-Project Southern Province, Choma.

Holmes, R.J., McDonald, J.N.A.W. & Juritz, J. 1987. Effects of clearing treatment on seed bank of the Alinene invasive shrubs Acacia saligna and Acacia cyclops in the southern and South Western Cape, South Africa. J. Appl. Ecol. 24: 1045-1051.

Islam, A.K.M.A., Anuar, N., Yaakob, Z., Ghani, J.A. & Osman, M. 2013. Combining ability for germination traits in jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.). Sci. World J. 2013: 1-6.

Islam, A.K.M.A., Anuar, N. & Yaakob, Z. 2009. Effect of genotypes and pre-sowing treatments on seed germination behaviour of jatropha. Asian J. Plant Sci. 8: 433-439.

Kumar, R., Tyagi, C.S. & Ram, C. 1989. Association among laboratory vigour tests and agronomic parameters in different genotypes of green gram (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). Seeds and Farms 15(9-10): 22-27.

Kureel, R.S. 2006. Prospect and potential of Jatropha curcas for biodiesel production. In Biodiesel-Towards Energy Independence, edited by Singh, B., Swaminathan, R. & Ponraj, V. New Delhi: Rashtrapathi Bhawan. p. 374.

Martin, A., Grzeskowiak, V. & Puech, S. 1995. Germination variability in three species in disturbed Mediterranean environments. Acta Oecol. 16: 479-490.

Martin, G. & Mayeux, A. 1985. Curcas oil (Jatropha curcas L.): A possible fuel. Agric. Trop. 9: 73-75.

McGee, K.P. & Marshall, D.L. 1994. Effects of variable moisture availability on seed germination in three populations of Larrea tridentata. Am. Midl. Nat. 130: 75-82.

Münch, E. & Kiefer, J. 1989. Die Purgiernuss (Jatropha curcas L.). Mehrzweckpflanze als Kraftstoffquelle der Zukunft?, Schriftenreihe der GTZ, Nr. p. 209.

Natarajaratnam, N., Rao, T.V. & Pathmanabhan, G. 1987. Seed and seedling physiology of cowpea genotypes. Madras Agri. J. 72(1): 31-34.

Nikolaeva, M.G. 1982. Seed dormancy and factors of its control. In Physiology and Biochemistry of Seed Dormancy and Germination. Moscow: Colos Press. pp. 72-96.

Openshaw, K. 2000. A review of Jatropha curcas. An oil plant of unfulfilled promise. Biomass Bioenergy 19: 1-15.

Pe´rez-Garc?´a, F. 1997. Germination of Cistus ladanifer seeds in relation to parent material. Plant Ecol. 133: 57-62.

Pekşen, A., Pekşen, E. & Bozoğlu, H. 2004. Relationships among some seed traits, laboratory germination and field emergence in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) genotypes. Pak. J. Bot. 36(2): 311-320.

Rockerfeller Foundation. 1998. The Potential of Jatropha curcas in Rural Development and Environment Protection - An Exploration. Concept paper. Rockerfeller Foundation and Scientific & Industrial Research & Development Centre, Harare, Zimbabwe.

Ruan, S., Xue, Q. & Tylkawska, K. 2002. The influence of priming on germination of rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds and seedling emergence and performance in flooded soils. Seed Sci. Technol. 30: 61-67.

Sadhu, R.N. & Kaul, V. 1989. Seed coat dormancy in Robinia pseudo-acacia. The Indian Forester 115: 483-487.

SAS. 2008. SAS/STAT User Installation Guide for SASÒ 9.1.3 Foundation for MicrosoftÒ WindowsÒ. SAS Institute Inc., CopyrightÒ 2003, Cary, North Carolina, USA.

Steel, R.G.D. & Torrie, J.H. 1980. Principle and Procedures of Statistics: A Biometrical Approach. 2nd ed. New York: McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc.

Sujatha, M. & Prabakaran, A.J. 1997. Characterization and utilization of Indian Jatrophas. Indian J. Plant Genet. Resour. 10: 123-128.

Takeda, Y. 1982. Development study on Jatropha curcas oil as a possible substitute for diesel engine oil in Thailand. J. Agric. Assoc. China 120: 1-8.

van der Vegte, F.W. 1978. Population differentiation and germination ecology in Stellaria media (L.) Vill. Oecologia 37: 231-245.



* Pengarang untuk surat-menyurat; email: