Sains Malaysiana 44(9)(2015): 1301–1307


Effect of Preparation and Extraction Parameters of Banana (Musa balbisiana cv. Saba) Inflorescence on their Antibacterial Activities

(Kesan Penyediaan dan Parameter Pengekstrakan Jantung Pisang (Musa balbisiana cv. Saba) ke atas Aktiviti Antibakteria)




1Faculty of Food Science and Nutrition, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS

88450 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Negeri di Bawah Bayu, Malaysia


2Institute of Tropical Biology and Conservation, Universiti Malaysia Sabah, Jalan UMS

88450 Kota Kinabalu, Sabah Negeri di Bawah Bayu, Malaysia


Diserahkan: 22 Julai 2014/Diterima: 25 Mei 2015



The study aimed to determine the influence of sample preparation and extraction parameters on the antibacterial activity of inflorescences from banana (Musa balbisiaba cv. Saba). Banana inflorescences were extracted using various solvent extractions and tested for antibacterial activity using agar-well diffusion assay against gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Brochothrix thermosphacta) and gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Enterobacter sakazakii, Yersinia enterocolitica and Vibrio parahaemolyticus) The effects of geographical origin, drying methods and extraction parameters (sample-to-solvent ratio, extraction time and temperature as well as methanol to solvent ratio) on antibacterial activity of the banana by-product were carried out. Among all the extracts evaluated, methanolic extract from the buds showed significant higher inhibitory against all gram positive bacteria ranging from 12.56-13.54 mm. Interestingly, no significant different (p>0.05) was observed on the effect of geographical origin as well as extraction methods on the antibacterial capacity. Meanwhile, the extracts produced from 50°C oven dried sample seem to have comparable antibacterial activity with the freeze dried samples. Extraction parameters (sample-to-solvent ratio, extraction time and temperature as well as methanol to solvent ratio) were found responsible in determining the efficacy of the antibacterial. In conclusion, methanolic extracts from banana inflorescence buds could be a new source of natural antibacterial and further bioassay guided fractionation should be carried out to determine the bioactive compounds and their biological activities.


Keywords: Antibacterial; banana by-product; extraction methods; methanolic



Kajian ini bertujuan menentukan pengaruh penyediaan sampel dan faktor pengekstrakan ke atas aktiviti antibakteria jantung pisang (Musa balbisiaba cv. Saba). Jantung pisang telah diekstrak dengan menggunakan pelbagai pelarut dan diuji untuk aktiviti antibakteria menggunakan kaedah penyerapan agar terhadap bakteria gram positif (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes dan Brochothrix thermosphacta) dan bakteria gram negatif (Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enteritidis, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Enterobacter sakazakii, Yersinia enterocolitica dan Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Kesan sampel yang diperoleh daripada kedudukan geografi, kaedah pengeringan dan kaedah pengekstrakan (nisbah sampel-ke-pelarut, masa pengekstrakan dan suhu serta metanol kepada nisbah air) yang berbeza ke atas aktiviti antibakteria produk sampingan pisang telah dilakukan. Ekstrak metanolik jantung pisang didapati memberikan kesan perencatan yang lebih kuat secara signifikan terhadap bakteria gram positif dengan julat 12.56-13.54 mm. Tidak ada perbezaan yang signifikan (p>0.05) diperhatikan kepada pengaruhan kedudukan geografi dan kaedah pengekstrakan ke atas kapasiti antibakteria. Sementara itu, ekstrak yang dihasilkan melalui pengeringan ketuhar pada suhu 50°C didapati mempunyai kesan antibakteria yang setara dengan sampel yang dikering sejukbeku. Faktor pengekstrakan (nisbah sampel-ke-pelarut, pengaruh masa dan suhu serta metanol kepada nisbah pelarut) didapati mempengaruhi kesan aktiviti antibakteria ini. Secara kesimpulannya, ekstrak metanolik daripada jantung pisang berpotensi dijadikan sumber baru antibakteria semula jadi dan kajian lanjut harus dilakukan untuk menentukan sebatian bioaktif serta aktiviti biologi mereka.


Kata kunci: Antibakteria; kaedah pengekstrakan; metanolik; produk sampingan pisang


Abdul Khalid, H.P.S., Siti Alwani, M. & Mohd Omar, A.K. 2006. Chemical composition, anatomy, lignin distribution and cell wall structure of Malaysia plant waste fibers. Bioresources 1: 220-232.

Anne, S. 2008. Evaluation and optimization of methods for identification of milk thistle. J. AOAC Int. 91: 278-286.

Ao, C., Li, A., Elzaawely, A.A., Xuan, T.D. & Tawata, S. 2008. Evaluation of antioxidant and antibacterial activities of Ficus microcarpa L. fil. extract. Food Control 19: 940-948.

Biesaga, M. 2011. Influence of extraction methods on stability of flavonoids. J. Chromatogr. A. 1218: 2505-2512.

DOA. 2007. Report on Crops Hectarage and Production in Sabah 2007. Department of Agriculture (DOA), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

Durling, N.E., Catchpole, O.J., Grey, J.B., Webby, R.F., Mitchell, K.A., Foo, L.Y. & Poerry, N.B. 2007. Extraction of phenolics and essential oil from dried sage (Salvia officinalis) using ethanol-water mixtures. Food Chem. 101: 1434-1441.

Jordan, M.J., Lax, V., Rota, M.C., Loran, S. & Sotomayor, J.A. 2013. Effect of bioclimatic area on the essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Food Control 30: 463- 468.

Joshi, A.P.K., Rupasinghe, H.P.V. & Khanizadeh, S. 2009. Impact of drying process and bioactive phenolics, vitamin C and antioxidant capacity of red-fleshed apple slices. J. Food Process. Pres. 35: 453-457.

Kim, J.M., Chang, S.M., Kim, I.H., Kim, Y.E., Hwang, J.H. & Kim, K.S. 2007. Design of optimal solvent for extraction of bio-active ingredients from mulberry leaves. Biochem. Eng. J. 37: 271-278.

Koh, G.Y., Chou, G.X. & Liu, Z.J. 2009. Purification of a water extract of Chinese sweet tea plant (Rubus suavissimus S. Lee) by alcohol precipitation. J. Agr. Food Chem. 57: 5000-5006.

Lee, Y.E. & Li, S.F.Y. 1991. Binary diffusion coefficient of the methanol/water system in the temperature range 30-40°C. J. Chem. Eng. Data 36: 240-243.

Mokbel, M.S. & Hashinaga, F. 2005. Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of banana (Musa AAA cv. Cavendish) fruits peel. Am. J. Biochem. Biotech. 1: 126-132.

Mukhopadhyay, S., Luthria, D.L. & Robbins, R.J. 2006. Optimization of extraction process for phenolics acids from black cohosh (Cimicifuga racemosa) by pressurized liquid extraction. J. Sci. Food Agr. 86: 156-162.

Muthuvelan, B. & Raja, R.B. 2008. Studies on the efficiency of different extraction procedures on the antimicrobial activity of selected medicinal plants. World J. Microb. Biotech. 24: 2837-2842.

Oliveira, L., Cordeiro, N., Evtuguin, D., Torresa, I.C. & Silvestre, A.J.D. 2007. Chemical composition of different morphological parts from ‘Dwarf Cavendish’ banana plant and their potential as a non-wood renewable source of natural products. Ind. Crop. Prod. 26: 163-172.

Omirou, M., Papastylianou, I., Iori, R., Papastephanou, K.K., Ehaliotis, C. & Karpouzas, D.G. 2009. Microwave-assisted extraction of glucosinolates from Erura sativa seeds and soils: Comparison with existing methods. Phytochem. Analysis 20: 214-220.

Padam, B.S., Tin, H.S., Chye, F.Y. & Abdullah, M.I. 2012. Antibacterial and antioxidative activities of the various solvent extracts of banana (Musa paradisiaca cv. Mysore) inflorescences. J. Biol. Sci. 12: 62-73.

Paniwynk, L., Beaufoy, E., Lorimer, J.P. & Mason, T.J. 2001. The extraction of rutin from flower buds of Sophora japonica. Ultrason. Sonochem. 8: 299-301.

Prasad, K.N., Hassan, F.A., Yang, B., Kong, K.W., Ramanan, R.N., Azlan, A. & Ismail, A. 2011. Response surface optimization for the extraction of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities of underutilized Mangifera pajang koserm. peels. Food Chem. 128: 1121-1127.

Shahidi, F. & Naczk, M. 2004. Phenolics in Food and Neutraceuticals. Boca Raton: CRC Press.

Sim, E.Y. & Wu, T.Y. 2010. The potential reuse of biodegradable municipal solid wastes (MSW) as feedstock in vermicomposting. J. Sci. Food Agri. 90: 2153-2162.

Spigno, G. & Tramelli, L. & De Faveri, D.M. 2007. Effects of extraction time, temperature and solvent on concentration and antioxidant activity of grape marc phenolics. J. Food Eng. 81: 200-208.

Tiwari, B.K., Valdramidis, V.P., O’Donnel, C.P., Muthukumarappan, K., Bourke, P. & Cullen, P.J. 2009. Application of natural antimicrobials for food preservation. J. Agr. Food Chem. 57: 5987-6000.

Valgas, C., de Souza, S.M., Smania, E.F.A. & Artur Smania, J. 2007. Screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products. Braz. J. Microb. 38: 369-380.



*Pengarang untuk surat-menyurat; email: