Sains Malaysiana 46(9)(2017): 15051512


Effects of Fermentation Time and pH on Soursop (Annona muricata) Vinegar Production towards its Chemical Compositions

(Kesan Masa Fermentasi dan pH terhadap Penghasilan Cuka Durian Belanda (Annona muricata) dan Komposisi Kimianya)




1School of Chemical Sciences and Food Technology, Faculty of Science and Technology

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


2School of Biosciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


3Food Science and Food Safety, Food Technology Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute (MARDI), 43400 Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan


Diserahkan: 31 Ogos 2016/Diterima: 28 April 2017



Vinegar is a liquid product that undergoes both alcoholic and acetous fermentation of sugar (carbohydrate) sources. Soursop (Annona muricata) is easily available in Malaysia throughout the year. However, it is also highly perishable and has a short shelf-life. Therefore, in this research, soursop was used in the production of vinegar, to increase its utilisation and reduce wastage. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of fermentation time and pH on soursop vinegar using a 3 5 factorial design and to determine its chemical compositions. It was found that pH and fermentation time showed significant (p<0.05) effects on the reduction of sugar content and the production of acetic acid, while only fermentation time showed a significant effect on the production of ethanol. The interaction between factors did not exhibit any statistical significance (p>0.05). It was evident that the sugar concentration reduces over time and it was inversely proportional to the ethanol and acetic acid concentrations, due to the conversion of sugar to ethanol and subsequently acetic acid. It was found that higher pH (pH5.5) gave significantly (p<0.05) higher acetic acid production in the vinegar, while pH has no significant (p>0.05) effect on ethanol production. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in vitamin C content in all vinegar samples. Thus, it can be established that at fermentation time of 120 h and pH5.5, more sugar was used and more ethanol and acetic acid were produced.


Keywords: Acetous fermentation; alcoholic fermentation; soursop; vinegar; yeast




Cuka merupakan produk cecair yang telah melalui proses fermentasi alkohol dan aselom pada sumber gula (karbohidrat). Durian belanda (Annona muricata) merupakan buah-buahan yang amat popular dan senang diperoleh di Malaysia sepanjang tahun. Walau bagaimanapun, durian belanda merupakan buah-buahan yang sangat mudah rosak dan mempunyai jangka hayat yang pendek. Oleh itu, dalam kajian ini, durian belanda telah digunakan untuk menghasilkan cuka untuk mengurangkan pembaziran serta meningkatkan penggunaannya. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk mengenal pasti kesan masa fermentasi dan pH terhadap penghasilan cuka durian belanda dengan menggunakan reka bentuk eksperimen berfaktor 3 5 dan mengenal pasti komposisi kimianya. Hasil daripada kajian ini menunjukkan bahawa masa fermentasi dan pH memberi kesan yang bererti (p<0.05) ke atas kandungan gula dan penghasilan asid asetik, manakala hanya masa fermentasi memberi kesan yang bererti (p<0.05) ke atas penghasilan etanol. Interaksi antara faktor tidak menunjukkan kesan yang bererti (p>0.05). Dapat diperhatikan bahawa kepekatan gula menurun dengan peningkatan masa fermentasi dan ia adalah berkadar songsang dengan kepekatan etanol dan asid asetik. Ini disebabkan oleh penukaran gula kepada etanol dan kemudiannya asid asetik. Didapati juga pada pH yang lebih tinggi (pH5.5), penghasilan asid asetik adalah lebih tinggi secara bererti (p<0.05), tetapi nilai pH tidak memberi kesan bererti (p>0.05) pada penghasilan etanol. Kandungan vitamin C tidak menunjukkan perbezaan bererti (p<0.05) dalam semua sampel. Secara keseluruhannya, pada masa fermentasi 120 jam dan pH5.5, didapati gula paling banyak digunakan manakala etanol dan asid asetik paling banyak dihasilkan.


Kata kunci: Cuka; durian belanda; fermentasi alkohol; fermentasi asetous; yis.


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