Sains Malaysiana 48(1)(2019): 155–164


A Review of Wastewater Treatment using Natural Material and Its Potential as Aid and Composite Coagulant

(Suatu Penilaian Perawatan Sisa Air menggunakan Bahan Semula Jadi dan Potensinya sebagai Pembantu dan Komposit Koagulan)




Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia, 86400 Parit Raja, Johor Darul Takzim, Malaysia


Diserahkan: 3 April 2018/Diterima: 13 September 2018



The introduction of natural materials into the coagulation-flocculation process need to be practiced as common as possible. The previous literature indicated that utilization of natural material is actually worth to be developed and if possible, into the commercial one. However, the application of natural coagulants itself as the primary treatment is not sufficient, due to the rise in constraints which limited its performance. Emerging technologies and depth studies are actually helping these limited conditions to grow them as good as the performance of chemical coagulants. Alternatively, the natural-based coagulants are commonly used as coagulant aids alongside chemical coagulants, which have created a highlight in water research. This review covers the type of coagulants used in the coagulation-flocculation of wastewater treatment especially in the usage of natural-based coagulants. This review paper also outlines the future prospects of natural materials as aids and its potential as sustainable composite coagulants.


Keywords: Chemical coagulant; composite coagulant; natural material; wastewater



Pengenalan bahan-bahan semula jadi ke dalam proses pemberbukuan-pembekuan perlu diamalkan sedapat mungkin. Kepustakaan terdahulu menunjukkan bahawa penggunaan bahan semula jadi sebenarnya berbaloi untuk dibangunkan dan jika boleh secara komersial. Walau bagaimanapun, penggunaan koagulan semula jadi sendiri sebagai rawatan utama tidak mencukupi, disebabkan oleh peningkatan kekangan yang membatasi prestasinya. Teknologi yang berkembang dan kajian mendalam sebenarnya membantu keadaan terhad ini untuk membangunkannya menjadi sebaik prestasi koagulan kimia. Sebagai alternatif, koagulan berasaskan semula jadi biasanya digunakan sebagai alat koagulan di samping koagulan kimia, yang telah menarik perhatian dalam penyelidikan air. Kajian ini merangkumi jenis-jenis koagulan yang digunakan dalam pemberbukuan-pembekuan pembuangan air sisa terutamanya dalam penggunaan koagulan berasaskan semula jadi. Kertas ini juga menggariskan prospek masa depan bahan semula jadi sebagai bantuan dan potensinya sebagai koagulan komposit yang mampan.


Kata kunci: Air sisa; bahan semula jadi; koagulan kimia; komposit koagulan


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