Sains Malaysiana 49(10)(2020): 2383-2401


Using the Water Quality Index (WQI), and the Synthetic Pollution Index (SPI) to Evaluate the Groundwater Quality for Drinking Purpose in Hailun, China

(Penggunaan Indeks Kualiti Air (WQI) dan Indeks Pencemaran Sintetik (SPI) untuk Menilai Kualiti Air Bawah Tanah untuk Tujuan Minuman di Hailun, China)



1Shenyang Geological Survey Center, China Geological Survey, Shenyang 110034, China


2Key Laboratory of Groundwater Resources and Environment, Ministry of Education, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China


3College of New Energy and Environment, Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China


Diserahkan: 10 Februari 2020/Diterima: 13 April 2020



Due to the impact of human agricultural production, climate and environmental changes. The applicability of groundwater for drinking purposes has attracted widespread attention. In order to quantify the hydrochemical characteristics of groundwater in Hailun and evaluate its suitability for assessing water for drinking purposes, 77 shallow groundwater samples and 57 deep groundwater samples were collected and analyzed. The results show that deep groundwater in aquifers in the study area is weakly alkaline, while that in shallow is acidic. The abundance is in the order HCO3-> Cl-> SO42- for anions, and Ca2+> Na+> Mg2+ for cations. Groundwater chemical type were dominated by HCO3-Ca, HCO3-Ca• Mg, and HCO3-Ca• Na. Correlation analysis (CA) and Durov diagram showed that rock weathering and dissolution, human activities, and the hydraulic connection between shallow and deep water are the main reasons affecting the chemical composition of water in Helen. The analysis of water samples based on the WQI model showed that about 23.37, 23.37, 32.46, 12.98, and 7.79% of the shallow groundwater samples were excellent, good, poor, very poor, and unsuitable for drinking purposes, respectively, and that 61.40, 30.90, 5.26, 1.75, and 1.75% of the deep groundwater samples were excellent, good, poor, very poor, and unsuitable for drinking purposes, respectively. The analysis of groundwater samples based on the SPI model showed that 92.98% of the deep groundwater samples were suitable grade, while that 40.25% of the shallow groundwater samples were suitable grade. The spatial distribution maps of the WQI and SPI show that most of the deep groundwater resources in the study area are clean and suitable for drinking, despite the risks of the shallow groundwater in the north and southwest of the study area.


Keywords: China; groundwater quality assessment; hydrochemistry; SPI; WQI



Kesan daripada pengeluaran pertanian manusia, iklim dan persekitaran mengalami perubahan. Kebolehgunaan air bawah tanah untuk tujuan minuman telah menarik perhatian meluas. Untuk mengukur ciri hidrokimia air bawah tanah di Hailun dan menilai kesesuaian air untuk tujuan minuman, 77 sampel air bawah tanah yang cetek dan 57 sampel air bawah tanah yang dalam telah diambil dan dianalisis. Keputusan menunjukkan bahawa air bawah tanah yang dalam di akuifer di kawasan kajian adalah alkali yang lemah, manakala di kawasan yang cetek adalah berasid. Kebanyakannya adalah dalam turutanHCO3-> Cl-> SO42- untuk anion, dan Ca2+> Na+> Mg2+ untuk kation. Jenis kimia air bawah tanah didominasi olehHCO3-Ca, HCO3-Ca• Mg dan HCO3-Ca• Na. Analisis korelasi (CA) dan rajah Durov menunjukkan bahawa luluhawa batuan dan pelarutan, aktiviti manusia, dan kaitan hidraulik antara air yang cetek dan dalam merupakan punca utama yang memberi kesan terhadap komposisi kimia air di Helen. Analisis sampel air berdasarkan model WQI menunjukkan bahawa 23.37, 23.37, 32.46, 12.98 dan 7.79% daripada sampel air bawah tanah yang cetek masing-masing adalah sangat baik, baik, tidak baik, sangat tidak baik, dan tidak sesuai untuk tujuan minuman dan 61.40, 30.90, 5.26, 1.75 dan 1.75% daripada sampel air bawah tanah yang dalam masing-masing adalah sangat baik, baik, tidak baik, sangat tidak baik, dan tidak sesuai untuk tujuan minuman. Analisis sampel air bawah tanah berdasarkan model SPI menunjukkan bahawa 92.98% daripada sampel air bawah tanah yang dalam merupakan gred yang sesuai. Peta taburan ruang untuk WQI dan SPI menunjukkan bahawa kebanyakan daripada sumber air bawah tanah yang dalam di kawasan kajian adalah bersih dan sesuai untuk diminum, walaupun terdapat risiko daripada air bawah tanah yang cetek di utara dan barat daya kawasan kajian.


Kata kunci: China; hidrokimia; penilaian kualiti air bawah tanah; SPI; WQI



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