The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences Vol 16 No 2 (2012): 187 193






(Impak Radiologi Radionuklid Tabii dalam Air Minuman ke atas Orang
Dewasa di Kawasan Tengah Semenanjung Malaysia


A.A. Tawalbeh1*, S.B. Samat1, M.S. Yasir1, M.Omar2


1School of Applied Physics,

Faculty of Science and Technology,

Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.

2Malaysian Nuclear Agency (Nuclear Malaysia),

43000 Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia.


*Corresponding author:




Fifty three samples of different types of imported and locally produced drinks consumed in central zone of Malaysia were analyzed using gamma-ray spectrometry system. The measurement was conducted for 12 hours using a Canberra p-type high purity germanium (HPGe) gamma spectrometer with 30% relative efficiency resolution of 1.8 keV at 1.33 MeV. The detector was connected to a computer with MCA card (Accuspec B) and Genie-2000 Analysis software of Canberra Industries, USA. The geometric means of daily intakes of 238U, 232Th and 40K were 0.05, 0.08 and 27.23 respectively. Also the values give annual committed effective doses of 0.8, 6.5 and 61.53 Sv yr-1 for 238U, 232Th and 40K, respectively for population in central zone of Malaysia. The net radiological impact of these radionuclides is 68.83 Sv yr-1. This value gives cancer risk factor of 1.72 10-7. Also the value of net radiological impact gives loss of life expectancy of 0.43 days only. Whereas ICRP cancer risk factor for general public is 2.5 10-3 and total risk involve from the all natural radiation sources based on global average annual radiation dose of 2.4 mSv yr-1 is 6.0 10-3 . The estimated cancer risk shows that probability of increase of cancer risk from daily Malaysian drinks is only a minor fraction of ICRP values. Therefore the drink samples investigated here does not pose any significant health hazard and is considered radiologically safe for human consumption.


Keywords: 238U, 232Th and 40K, naturally occurring radionuclides (NORM), drinks, dietary intake, radiation dose, cancer risk



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