Sains Malaysiana 45(1)(2016): 119–127

Bioaccumulation and Histopathological Changes induced by Toxicity of Mercury (HgCl2) to Tilapia Fish Oreochromis niloticus  

(Perubahan Bioakumulasi dan Histopatologi Teraruh oleh Ketoksikan Merkuri (HgCl2) pada Ikan Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus)




1Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia


2Department of Geology, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Wilayah Persekutuan, Malaysia


Received: 8 July 2014/Accepted: 24 November 2014



In this paper we have studied the acute toxicity effect of Hg on hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). For this, the tissues of tilapia have been digested by means of acids in microwave oven and was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometer (FAAS). We have identified that the levels of Hg varied significantly in different tissues and the metal concentration was in the following order: liver > gills > muscles; of which the maximum level recorded for Hg was 0.799 mg/kg. We have also observed the alterations towards histopathological aspects in the gills and liver of treated fishes were studied using light and electron microscopy, subjected to the exposure of Hg for 24 h and furthermore we have also noticed the extent of the increased alterations during the 96 h of exposure to median lethal concentration LC50 (0.3 mg/L) a severe disorganization of epithelial cells and modifications of the structure of the secondary lamellae. Moreover the severity has also found to increase to sub-lethal concentration (0.03 mgHg/L) in 21 days of exposure; Liver was slightly affected by the contamination of Hg. Ultimately, histopathology is considered as a sensitive technique of bioaccumulation and for the observing the potential damage from Hg exposure.


Keywords: Acute exposure; bioaccumulation; histopathology; Mercury; Oreochromis niloticus




Dalam penyelidikan ini, kami mengkaji kesan ketoksikan akut Hg pada tilapia hibrid (Oreochromis niloticus). Tisu tilapia telah dicerna menggunakan asid di dalam ketuhar gelombang mikro dan telah dianalisis menggunakan spektrofotometer atom serapan tidak bernyala (FAAS). Kami telah mengenal pasti bahawa, paras Hg berubah dengan ketara dalam tisu yang berbeza dan susunan kepekatan logam adalah seperti berikut: hati> insang> otot; dengan paras maksimum Hg yang direkodkan adalah 0.799 mg/kg. Kami juga dapati perubahan terhadap aspek histopatologi dalam insang dan hati ikan terawat dan kajian dijalankan menggunakan mikroskop cahaya dan elektron, tertakluk kepada pendedahan Hg selama 24 jam. Kami turut mengenal pasti peningkatan perubahan semasa 96 jam pendedahan terhadap kepekatan maut LC50 (0.3 mg/L) ketidakaturan sel-sel epitelium yang rosak dan pengubahsuaian struktur lamela sekunder, kerosakan teruk juga berlaku pada kepekatan sub-maut (0.03 mgHg/L) dalam masa 21 hari pendedahan; kesan pencemaran Hg terhadap hati hanya sedikit sahaja. Histopatologi dianggap sebagai teknik yang sensitif bagi bioakumulasi dan pemerhatian terhadap potensi kerosakan akibat pendedahan Hg.


Kata kunci: Bioakumulasi; histopatologi; Merkuri; Oreochromis niloticus; pendedahan akut



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