Sains Malaysiana 46(10)(2017): 18251830


Estimation of Target Hazard Quotients and Potential Health Risks for Metals by Consumption of Shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) in Selangor, Malaysia

(Penganggaran Darjah Bahaya Sasaran dan Potensi Risiko Kesihatan untuk Logam melalui

Pengambilan Udang (Litopenaeus vannamei) di Selangor, Malaysia)





Faculty of Health Science, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 42300 Bandar Puncak Alam, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


Received: 23 October 2015/Accepted: 8 February 2017



The concentrations of the heavy metal in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) purchased from the local wet markets throughout the state of Selangor were investigated using flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The order of the heavy metal concentrations were Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd, whereby the metal concentrations in most samples exceeded the limits of the Malaysian Food Regulation, 1985 and the guidelines set by the Food and Agriculture Organisation (1983). A health risk analysis based on the mean target hazard quotient (THQ) yielded values <1 for all metals for average and maximal consumers. The total THQ (tTHQ) which measures the aggregated risk due to heavy metal uptake via the ingestion of L. vannamei was 0.124 and 0.372 for average and maximal consumers, respectively. This suggests that although the metal concentrations are exceeding the limit, there is no calculated significant risk from metal toxicity by the consumption of shrimp.


Keywords: Hazard quotient; health risk assessment; heavy metals; shrimp



Kepekatan logam berat dalam udang putih (Litopenaeus vannamei) yang dibeli dari dua puluh pasar basah di negeri Selangor telah diukur dengan menggunakan spektrometri penyerapan api atom. Purata tahap kepekatan logam berat adalah Zn>Cu>Pb>Cd, dengan kebanyakan sampel melebihi had Peraturan Makanan Malaysia, 1985 dan garis panduan yang ditetapkan oleh FAO (1983). Analisis risiko kesihatan berdasarkan darjah bahaya sasaran (THQ) menghasilkan nilai <1 untuk semua logam untuk pengguna. Jumlah THQ (tTHQ) yang mengukur risiko agregat disebabkan oleh pengambilan logam berat melalui pemakanan L. vannamei masing-masing adalah 0.124 dan 0.372, untuk pengguna yang makan udang secara sederhana dan maksimal. Ini mencadangkan walaupun kepekatan logam berat melebihi had yang ditetapkan, tiada risiko ketara daripada ketoksikan logam melalui pengambilan udang.


Kata kunci: Darjah bahaya; logam berat; penilaian risiko kesihatan; udang


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