Sains Malaysiana 46(10)(2017): 1859–1863


Anti-nociceptive Effect of Caralluma edulis on Peripheral and Central Pain Pathways

(Kesan Anti-nosiseptik Caralluma edulis terhadap Sistem Sakit Berpusat dan Periferal)





1Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Riphah Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan


2Department of Pharmacy, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat, Pakistan



Received: 7 May 2016/Accepted: 29 March 2017




The purpose of the present research was to evaluate the phytochemical content and analgesic effect of Caralluma edulis (Ce.Cr). Established methods were used for phytochemical analysis of plant. The anti-nociceptic activity of Ce.Cr was scrutinized using acetic acid-induced writhings, tail immersion and hot plate methods. Ce.Cr was tested positive for the presence of therapeutically active metabolites such as alkaloids, flavonoids, glycosides, phenol, tannins, terpenoids and saponins. Ce.Cr at the dose of 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal writhes and increase the latency time to thermal stimuli in both tail immersion and hot plate tests, similar to standard drug. These results showed that the ethanolic extract of Caralluma edulis possesses anti-nociceptive property.


Keywords: Anti-nociceptive; Asclepiadaceae; Caralluma edulis



Penyelidikan ini bertujuan untuk menilai kandungan fitokimia dan kesan analgesik Caralluma edulis (Ce.Cr). Kaedah sedia ada digunakan untuk menganalisis fitokimia tumbuhan. Aktiviti anti-nosiseptik Ce.Cr diteliti dengan menggunakan kaedah asid asetik bergelut, rendaman hujung dan plat panas. Ce.Cr diuji positif untuk kehadiran metabolit terapeutik aktif seperti alkaloid, flavonoid, glikosida, fenol, tanin, terpenoid dan saponin. Ce.Cr pada dos 10, 30 dan 100 mg/kg merencat abdomen bergelut teraruh asid asetik dan meningkatkan masa kependaman untuk rangsangan terma dalam ujian rendaman hujung dan plat panas seperti piawai dadah. Keputusan ini menunjukkan bahawa ekstrak etanol Caralluma edulis memiliki sifat anti-nosiseptif.


Kata kunci: Caralluma edulis; Asclepiadaceae; Anti-nosiseptif


Adnan, M., Jan, S., Mussarat, S., Tariq, A., Begum, S., Afroz, A. & Shinwari, Z.K. 2014. A review on ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of plant genus Caralluma R. Br. The Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 66: 1351-1368.

Afsar, T., Khan, M.R., Razak, S., Ullah, S. & Mirza, B. 2015. Antipyretic, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activity of Acacia hydaspica R. Parker and its phytochemical analysis. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine 15: 136.

Ahmad, M., Qureshi, R., Arshad, M., Khan, M.A. & Zafar, M. 2009. Traditional herbal remedies used for the treatment of diabetes from district Attock (Pakistan). Pakistan Journal of Botany 41: 2777-2782.

Ansari, N.M., Houlihan, L., Hussain, B. & Pieroni, A. 2005. Antioxidant activity of five vegetables traditionally consumed by South-Asian migrants in Bradford, Yorkshire, UK. Phytotherapy Research 19: 907-911.

Brandão, M.S., Pereira, S.S., Lima, D.F., Oliveira, J.P.C., Ferreira, E.L.F., Chaves, M.H. & Almeida, F.R.C. 2013. Antinociceptive effect of Lecythis pisonis Camb.(Lecythidaceae) in models of acute pain in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 146: 180-186.

Bukhari, I.A., Alhumayyd, M.S., Mahesar, A.L. & Gilani, A.H. 2013. The analgesic and anticonvulsant effects of piperine in mice. Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology 64(6): 789-794.

De Sousa, D. 2011. Analgesic-like activity of essential oils constituents. Molecules 16: 2233-2252.

Evans, W.C. 1996. Trease and Evan’s Pharmacognosy. 14th ed. London: WB Saunders. pp. 161-408.

Ferreira, L.C., Grabe-Guimarães, A., de Paula, C.A., Michel, M.C., Guimarães, R.G., Rezende, S.A., de Souza Filho, J.D. & Saúde-Guimarães, D.A. 2013. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Campomanesia adamantium. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 145(1): 100- 108.

Haq, M.N.U., Wazir, S.M., Ullah, F., Khan, R.A., Shah, M.S. & Khatak, A. 2016. Phytochemical and biological evaluation of defatted seeds of Jatropha curcas. Sains Malaysiana 45(10): 1435-1442.

Harborne, J.B. 1998. Phytochemical Methods: A Guide to Modern Techniques of Plant Analysis. 3rd ed. London: Chapman and Hall. pp. 1-302.

Janssen, P.A., Niemegeers, C.J. & Dony, J.G. 1963. The inhibitory effect of fentanyl and other morphine-like analgesics on the warm water induced tail withdrawal reflex in rats. Arzneimittel Forschung-Drug Research 13: 502-507.

Khan, A.U. & Gilani, A.H. 2010. Antisecretory and analgesic activities of Terminalia bellerica. African Journal Biotechnology 9: 2717-2719.

National Research Council 1996. Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Washington: National Academy Press. pp. 1-7.

Raquibul Hasan, S.M., Mariam Jamila, Majumder, M.M., Akter, R., Hossain, M.M. & Mazumder, M.E.H., Alam, M.A., Jahangir, R., Rana, M.S., Md. Arif & Shafiqur Rahman 2009. Analgesic and antioxidant activity of the hydromethanolic extract of Mikania scandens (L.) willd. leaves. American Journal of Pharmacology and Toxicology 4: 1-7.

Santa-Cecília, F., Freitas, L., Vilela, F., Veloso, C., da Rocha, C., Moreira, M., Dias, D., Giusti-paiva, A. & Dos Santos, M. 2011. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of 7-epiclusianone, a prenylated benzophenone from Garcinia brasiliensis. European Journal Pharmacology 670: 280-285.

Shahnaz, H.K., Ali, F., Afzal Shah, F.K. & Jahan, S. 2016. Evaluation of antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic potential of Nelumbo nucifera seeds in diabetic rats. Sains Malaysiana 45(10): 1517-1523.

Toma, W., Gracioso, J.D.S., Hiruma-Lima, C.A., Andrade, F.D., Vilegas, W. & Brito, A.S. 2003. Evaluation of the analgesic and antiedematogenic activities of Quassia amara bark extract. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 85: 19-23.

Vilela, F., de Mesquita Padilha, M., dos Santos-e-Silva, L., Alves-da-Silva, G. & Giusti-Paiva, A. 2009. Evaluation of the antinociceptive activity of extracts of Sonchus oleraceus L. in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 124: 306-310.

Wadood, A., Wadood, N. & Shah, S.A. 1989. Effects of Acacia arabica and Caralluma edulis on blood glucose levels of normal and alloxan diabetic rabbits. Journal of Pakistan Medical Association 39: 208-212.

Zulfiker, A.H.M., Rahman, M.M., Hossain, M.K., Hamid, K., Mazumder, M.E.H. & Rana, M.S. 2010. In vivo analgesic activity of ethanolic extracts of two medicinal plants Scoparia dulcis L. and Ficus racemosa Linn. Biology and Medicine 2: 42-48.



*Corresponding author; email: