Sains Malaysiana 40(10)(2011): 1053–1064


Assessment of Surface Water Quality in the Malaysian Coastal

Waters by using Multivariate Analyses

(Penilaian Kualiti Air Permukaan di Perairan Pantai Malaysia Menggunakan Analisis Multivariat)



C. K.Yap*, M. W. Chee, S. Shamarina, F. B. Edward & W. Chew

Department of Biology , Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia

43400 Serdang, Selangor D.E., Malaysia


Tan, S.G.

Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular

Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor D.E., Malaysia


Diserahkan: 7 Julai 2010 / Diterima: 29 November 2011




Coastal water samples were collected from 20 sampling sites in the southern part of Peninsular Malaysia. Seven physico-chemical parameters were measured directly in-situ while water samples were collected and analysed for 6 dissolved trace metal concentrations. The surface water (0-20 cm) physico-chemical parameters including temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, total dissolved solids (TDS), specific conductance (SpC) and turbidity while the dissolved trace metals were Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn. The ranges for the physico-chemical parameters were 28.07-35.6ºC for temperature, 0.18-32.42 ppt for salinity, 2.20-12.03 mg/L for DO, 5.50-8.53 for pH, 0.24-31.65 mg/L for TDS, 368-49452 μS/cm for SpC and 0-262 NTU for turbidity while the dissolved metals (mg/L) were 0.013-0.147 for Cd, 0.024-0.143 for Cu, 0.266-2.873 for Fe, 0.027-0.651 for Ni, 0.018-0.377 for Pb and 0.032-0.099 for Zn. Based on multivariate analysis (including correlation, cluster and principal component analyses), the polluted sites were found at Kg. Pasir Puteh and Tg. Kupang while Ni and Pb were identified as two major dissolved metals of high variation in the coastal waters. Therefore, water quality monitoring and control of release of untreated anthropogenic wastes into rivers and coastal waters are strongly needed.


Keywords: Dissolved trace metals; physico-chemical properties; water quality



Sampel air telah diambil dari 20 lokasi persisiran pantai di bahagian selatan Semenanjung Malaysia. Tujuh parameter fiziko-kimia telah diukur in-situ manakala sampel air diambil untuk analisis kepekatan 6 logam surih terlarut. Parameter fiziko-kimia permukaan air (0-20 cm) yang diukur termasuk suhu, saliniti, oksigen terlarut (DO), pH, jumlah pepejal terlarut (TDS), konduktans spesifik (SpC) dan kekeruhan manakala, kepekatan logam surih yang telah diukur meliputi Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb, dan Zn. Julat parameter bagi fiziko-kimia yang diukur ialah 28.07-35.6ºC (suhu), 0.18-32.42 ppt (saliniti), 2.20-12.03 mg/L (DO), 5.50-8.53 pH, 0.24-31.65 mg/L (TDS), 368-49452 μS/cm (SpC) dan 0-262 NTU (kekeruhan). Manakala, julat kepekatan logam-logam terlarut (mg/L) ialah 0.013-0.147 (Cd), 0.024-0.143 (Cu), 0.266-2.873 (Fe), 0.027-0.651 (Ni), 0.018-0.377 (Pb) dan 0.032-0.099 (Zn). Kawasan persampelan tercemar telah ditemui di Kg. Pasir Puteh dan Tg. Kupang berdasarkan analisis multivariat termasuk analisis korelasi, kelompok dan analisis komponen prinsipal. Selain itu, Ni dan Pb telah dikenal pasti sebagai dua logam terlarut yang menunjukkan variasi tinggi dalam persisiran pantai. Oleh itu, pemantauan kualiti air dan kawasan sisa buangan antropogenik yang tidak dirawat ke sungai dan persisiran pantai adalah amat diperlukan.


Kata kunci: Ciri-ciri fiziko-kimia; kualiti air; logam surih terlarut




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