Sains Malaysiana 50(10)(2021): 2913-2921


Response of Primed Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Seeds towards Reproductive Stage Drought Stress

(Tindak Balas Benih Biji Benih Padi (Oryza sativa L.) Terawat terhadap Tekanan Kemarau di Peringkat Pembiakan)




1Department of Plant Science, Kulliyyah of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia, 25200 Kuantan, Pahang Darul Makmur, Malaysia


2Department of Crop Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


3Industrial Crop Research Centre, Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute, 13200 Kepala Batas, Pulau Pinang, Malaysia


4Department of Biological Sciences and Biotechnology, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 UKM Bangi, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


Diserahkan: 6 Oktober 2020/Diterima: 25 Februari 2021



Seed priming could be promoted as a potential alternative in alleviating drought stress challenges in rice cultivation. The present study was conducted as an attempt to verify potential performance of seed priming in improving seedling growth and harvestable grain yield of rice under reproductive stage drought stress (RS). Seed treatments involved were non-primed seeds as control (T1), hydro-primed (T2) and osmo-primed at -1.0 mPa with polyethylene glycol (PEG6000) (T3). Reproductive stage drought stress (RS) was imposed at soil water potential lower than -60 kPa. The well-watered plants served as control of the experiment. In general, seedling growth of T3 was better than T2 and T1 for all growth parameters in both planting seasons. Yield components were significantly lower in RS as compared to well-watered treatment (WW). The agronomic performance of primed seeds in T2 and T3 were not significantly different with T1 under both RS and WW for both planting seasons. As a conclusion, seed priming treatments used in this study was ineffective in improving agronomic performance of rice under RS. Therefore, other alternatives such as development of drought tolerant rice should be highly emphasized in order to minimize the impact of drought on growth and yield of rice plant.


Keywords: Growth; hydro-primed; polyethylene glycol; yield components



Rawatan biji benih berpotensi untuk dipromosikan sebagai alternatif bagi mengatasi masalah tekanan kemarau pada fasa pembiakan bagi penanaman padi. Kajian ini dijalankan bagi membuktikan potensi rawatan biji benih bagi meningkatkan pertumbuhan anak benih dan hasil padi dalam keadaan tekanan kemarau pada fasa pembiakan (RS). Rawatan biji benih yang terlibat ialah biji benih yang tidak dirawat sebagai kawalan uji kaji (T1), hidro prima (T2) dan osmo prima pada -1.0 mPa menggunakanpolietilena glikol (PEG6000) (T3). Tekanan kemarau pada fasa pembiakan (RS) dikenakan pada kadar keupayaan air dalam tanah di tahap -60 kPa. Pokok yang diberi air secukupnya berfungsi sebagai kawalan. Secara umumnya, pertumbuhan anak pokok T3 adalah lebih baik berbanding T2 dan T1 bagi kesemua parameter pertumbuhan dan musim penanaman. Komponen hasil didapati lebih rendah secara signifikan dalam RS berbanding WW. Prestasi agronomi rawatan biji benih T2 dan T3 adalah tidak berbeza secara signifikan dengan T1 bagi kedua-dua keadaan RS dan WW untuk kedua-dua musim penanaman. Kesimpulannya, rawatan biji benih yang digunakan dalam kajian ini adalah tidak berkesan untuk meningkatkan prestasi agronomi padi di bawah RS. Oleh yang demikian, alternatif lain iaitu penghasilan padi yang toleran terhadap RS perlulah diberikan perhatian bagi mengurangkan impak kemarau terhadap pertumbuhan dan hasil pokok.


Kata kunci: Hidro prima; komponen hasil; pertumbuhan; polietilena glikol



Basra, S.M.A., Farooq, M., Tabassam, R. & Ahmad, N. 2005. Physiological and biochemical aspects of pre-sowing seed treatments in fine rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed Science and Technology 33(3): 623-628.

Binang, W.B., Shiyam, J.O. & Ntia, J.D. 2012. Effect of seed priming method on agronomic performance and cost effectiveness of rainfed, dry-seeded NERICA rice. Research Journal of Seed Science 5(4): 136-143.

Chen, K. & Arora, R. 2013. Priming memory invokes seed stress-tolerance. Environmental and Experimental Botany 94: 33-45.

Chen, K. & Arora, R. 2011. Dynamics of the antioxidant system during seed osmopriming, post-priming germination, and seedling establishment in spinach (Spinacia oleracea). Plant Science 180: 212-220.

Farooq, M., Usman, M., Nadeem, F., Rehman, H.U., Wahid, A., Basra, S.M.A. & Siddique, K.H.M. 2019. Seed priming in field crops: Potential benefits, adoption and challenges. Crop and Pasture Science 70(9): 731-771.

Farooq, M., Basra, S.M.A., Tabassum, R. & Afzal, I. 2006. Enhancing the performance of direct seeded fine rice by seed priming. Plant Production Science 9(4): 446-456.

Harris, D., Rashid, A., Miraj, G., Arif, M. & Shah, H. 2007. ‘On-farm’ seed priming with zinc sulphate solution-A cost-effective way to increase the maize yields of resource-poor farmers. Field Crops Research 102(2): 119-127.

Harris, D., Raghuwanshi, B.S., Gangwar, J.S., Singh, S.C., Joshi, K.D., Rashid, A. & Hollington, P.A. 2001. Participatory evaluation by farmers of on-farm seed priming in wheat in India, Nepal and Pakistan. Experimental Agriculture 37(3): 403-415.

Harris, D., Joshi, A., Khan, P.A., Gothkar, P. & Sodhi, P.S. 1999. On-farm seed priming in semi-arid agriculture: Development and evaluation in maize, rice and chickpea in India using participatory methods. Experimental Agriculture 35(1): 15-29.

Heydecker, W. 1973. Accelerated germination by osmotic seed treatment. Nature 246: 42-44.

Hunt, R. 1990. Basic Growth Analysis. London: Unwin Hayman Ltd.

Ikmal, M.A., Nurasyikin, Z., Tuan Nur Aqlili Riana, T.A., Puteri Dinie Ellina, Z., Wickneswari, R. & Noraziyah, A.A.S. 2019. Drought yield QTL (qDTY) with consistent effects on morphological and agronomical traits of two populations of new rice (Oryza sativa L.) lines. Plants 8(6): 186.

Ikmal, M.A., Nurasyikin, Z., Arvind, K. & Noraziyah, A.A.S. 2018. Evaluation of morpho-physiological traits of MRQ74 pyramided lines with drought yield QTLs. Euphytica 214: 98.

ISTA. 2016. International Rules for Seed Testing. Bassersdorf, Switzerland: International Seed Testing Association.

Jisha, K.C., Vijayakumari, K. & Puthur, J.T. 2013. Seed priming for abiotic stress tolerance: An overview. Acta Physiologiae Plantarum 35(5): 1381-1396.

Kalhori, N., Nulit, R., Azizi, P., Abiri, R. & Atabki, N. 2018. Hydro priming stimulates seedling growth and establishment of Malaysian indica rice (MR219) under drought stress. Acta Scientific Agriculture 2(11): 9-16.

Lee, S.S. & Kim, J. H. 1999. Morphological change, sugar content and α-amylase activity of rice seeds under various priming conditions. Korean Journal of Crop Science 44(2): 138-142.

Lutts, S., Benincasa, P., Wojtyla, L., Kubala, S., Pace, R., Lechowska, K., Quinat, M. & Garnczarska, M. 2016. Seed priming: New comprehensive approaches for an old empirical technique. In New Challenges in Seed Biology - Basic and Translational Research Driving Seed Technology. DOI: 10.5772/64420.

Mahajan, G., Sarlach, R.S., Japinder, S. & Gill, M.S. 2011. Seed priming effects on germination, growth and yield of dry direct-seeded rice. Journal of Crop Improvement 25(4): 409-417.

Mouradi, M., Bouizgaren, A., Farissi, M., Makoudi, B., Kabbadj, A., Very, A.A., Sentenac, H., Qaddoury, A. & Ghoulam, C. 2016. Osmopriming improves seeds germination, growth, antioxidant responses and membrane stability during early stage of Moroccan alfalfa populations under water deficit. Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 76(3): 265-272.

Musa, A.M., Johansen, C., Kumar, J. & Harris, D. 1999. Response of chickpea to seed priming in the High Barind Tract of Bangladesh. Inter Chickpea and Pigeonpea Newsletter 6: 20-22.

Salehzade, H., Shishvan, M.I., Ghiyasi, M., Forouzin, F. & Siyahjani, A.A. 2009. Effect of seed priming on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Research Journal of Biological Sciences 4: 629-631.

Salleh, M.S., Nordin, M.S. & Puteh, A.B. 2020. Primed rice (Oryza sativa L.) seeds: Germination performance and biochemical changes under drought stress. Seed Science and Technology 48(3): 333-343.

Salleh, M.S., Nordin, M.S., Ghaffar, M.B.A., Shahari, R., Zainuddin, Z. & Puteh, A. 2018. Effects of pre-anthesis drought stress on yield components and seed quality of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Malaysian Applied Biology 47(5): 149-155.

Schonfeld, M.A., Johnson, R.C., Carver, B.F. & Mornhinweg, D.W. 1988. Water relations in winter wheat as drought resistance indicator. Crop Science 28: 526-531.

Shamsudin, N.A.A., Swamy, B.P.M., Ratnam, W., Cruz, M.T.S., Sandhu, N., Raman, A.K. & Kumar, A. 2016a. Pyramiding of drought yield QTLs into a high quality Malaysian rice cultivar MRQ74 improves yield under reproductive stage drought. Rice 9(1): 21.

Shamsudin, N.A.A., Swamy, B.P.M., Wickneswari, R., Sta. Cruz, M.T., Anitha, R. & Kumar, A. 2016b. Marker assisted pyramiding of drought yield QTLs into popular Malaysian rice cultivar, MR219. BMC Genetics 2016: 17-30.

Singh, H., Jassal, R.K., Kang, J.S., Sandhu, S.S., Kang, H. & Grewal, K. 2015. Seed priming techniques in field crops - A review. Agricultural Reviews 36(4): 251-264.

Subedi, K.D. & Ma, B.L. 2005. Seed priming does not improve corn yield in a humid temperate environment. Agronomy Journal 97: 211-218.

Swamy, B.P.M., Shamsudin, N.A.A., Rahman, S.N.A., Mauleon, R., Ratnam, W., Sta. Cruz, M.T. & Kumar, A. 2017. Association mapping of yield and yield-related traits under reproductive stage drought stress in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice 10(1): 21.

Watson, D.J. 1947. Comparative physiological studies on the growth of field crops: I. Variation in net assimilation rate and leaf area between species and varieties and between years. Annals of Botany 11: 41-76.


*Pengarang untuk surat-menyurat; email: