Sains Malaysiana 50(3)(2021): 571-593


Seasonal Effects on Spatial Variations of Surface Water Quality in a Tropical River Receiving Anthropogenic Influences

(Kesan Bermusim ke atas Variasi Ruang Kualiti Permukaan Air di Sungai Tropika yang Menerima Pengaruh Antropogen)




1Department of Environmental Management, Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory, Malaysia


2Department of Environmental Health, Faculty of Health Sciences, MAHSA University, Jln SP 2, Bandar Saujana Putra, 42610 Jenjarom, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia


3Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory, Malaysia


4Institute of Water and Wastewater Technology, Durban University of Technology, Musgrave, Berea, South Africa


Diserahkan: 30 Disember 2019/Diterima: 8 Ogos 2020



This study investigates the seasonal and spatial water quality patterns along a tropical river that continuously receives various pollution sources. Multivariate analysis was used to study the spatial and temporal variations of the water quality parameters and to determine the origin of the pollution sources. Three regions (low, moderate, and high pollution levels) were determined based on cluster analysis. The stepwise DA mode proposed six parameters (pH, EC, COD, NO3, TC, and Fe) with 75% correct assignations as the most significant water quality parameters to present the spatial variations. In the temporal discrimination, forward stepwise mode analysis showed eight parameters (EC, TUR, BOD, COD, AN, NO3, Cu, and Cr) with 92% correct assignations, while five parameters (EC, AN, Al, Cu, and Cr) affording 89% correct assignations in backward stepwise mode analysis. Principal component analysis and factor analysis were used to investigate the origins of each water quality parameter based on the three clustered regions and successfully yielded eight latent factors loadings for each period that significantly identified the pollution sources and types along the river. The pollution sources for moderate and high pollution level areas are anthropogenic sources (landfill, industrial activities, and sewage discharge). Agricultural runoff is the main pollution source for the low pollution level areas. This study has shown classifications of river water quality based on seasonal and spatial criteria.


Keywords: Multivariate analysis; pollutants; spatial and seasonal variation; water quality



Penyelidikan ini mengkaji corak kualiti air bermusim dan ruang di sepanjang sungai tropika menerima pelbagai sumber pencemaran. Analisis multivariat digunakan untuk mengkaji variasi ruang dan temporal parameter kualiti air dan mengenal pasti sumber pencemaran. Tiga kumpulan (tahap pencemaran rendah, sederhana dan tinggi) ditentukan berdasarkan analisis kelompok. Mod DA langkah demi langkah mencadangkan enam parameter (pH, EC, COD, NO3, TC dan Fe) dengan 75% penetapan yang betul sebagai parameter kualiti air yang paling signifikan untuk menunjukkan variasi ruang. Dalam diskriminasi temporal, analisis mod bertahap maju menunjukkan lapan parameter (EC, TUR, BOD, COD, AN, NO3, Cu dan Cr) dengan 92% penetapan yang betul, sementara lima parameter (EC, AN, Al, Cu dan Cr) memberikan 89% penugasan yang betul dalam analisis mod bertahap mundur. Analisis komponen utama dan analisis faktor digunakan untuk mengkaji asal-usul setiap parameter kualiti air berdasarkan ketiga-tiga kelompok. Sumber pencemaran untuk kawasan paras pencemaran yang sederhana dan tinggi adalah sumber antropogenik (tapak pelupusan, aktiviti industri, pelepasan kumbahan). Larian air pertanian adalah sumber pencemaran utama bagi kawasan paras pencemaran yang rendah. Kajian ini telah mendedahkan pengelasan kualiti air sungai berdasarkan kriteria bermusim dan ruang.


Kata kunci: Analisis multivariat; bahan cemar; kualiti air; variasi ruang dan bermusim



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