Sains Malaysiana 50(3)(2021): 779-790

http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2021-5003-19

 

Anorectic Effect, Biochemical and Hematological Profiles of Alkaloid Extract from Mitragyna speciosa Korth. in Rats

(Kesan Anorektik, Profil Biokimia dan Hematologi Ekstrak Alkaloid daripada Mitragyna speciosaKorth. dalam Tikus)

 

EKKASIT KUMARNSIT1,2,3, NIWAT KEAWPRADUB4, NARUMON SENGNON4, JURAITHIP WUNGSINTAWEEKUL4 & DANIA CHEAHA2,5*

 

1Division of Health and Applied Sciences, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand

   

2Biosignal Research Center for Health, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand

 

3The Natural Product Research Center of Excellence, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand

 

4Department of Pharmacognosy and Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand

 

5Division of Biological Science, Faculty of Science, Prince of Songkla University, Hatyai, Songkhla 90112, Thailand

 

Diserahkan: 24 April 2019/Diterima: 18 Ogos 2020

 

ABSTRACT

 

There is an on-going debate about medicinal use of kratom plant (Mitragyna speciosa (MS)) on whether it has beneficial or adverse effects. This study aimed to examine long-term weight-reducing effects, toxicity, and dopamine pathway activation of MS alkaloid extract on adult male Wistar rats. In anorexic study, the rats were divided into 3 groups (n = 10), receiving intragastric administration once a day for 19 weeks as control (distilled water), chronic (20 mg/kg MS alkaloid extract) and withdrawal (20 mg/kg MS alkaloid extract for week 1-12 and distilled water for week 13-19) groups. Body weights were measured daily, and blood samples were collected at the end of study for biochemical and hematological tests. In immunohistochemistry, the effects of the extract (40 and 80 mg/kg) on the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and striatum (STr) were determined by using Fos-like immunoreactivity. From week 2 to 19, the results showed a significant reduction in body weight gain produced by the extract. Cessation of the treatment at week 12 did not result in a rebound weight gain. Chronic MS alkaloid extract treatment significantly decreased non-fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, uric acid and blood urea nitrogen (BUN). However, elevated SGOT may suggest possible hepatotoxicity. Chronic MS alkaloid extract treatment also produced baseline levels for most of the hematological parameters except a decrease of monocyte. In immunohistochemistry, the acute treatment did not induce Fos-like immunoreactivity in the NAc and STr. These data demonstrated the beneficial effects of the MS alkaloid extract for possible treatment of metabolic syndromes without toxicity and rewarding effect.

 

Keywords: Addiction; anorectic; kratom; Mitragyna speciosa; toxicity

 

ABSTRAK

Terdapat perbahasan berterusan mengenai penggunaan tanaman kratom (Mitragyna speciosa (MS)) sebagai ubat, sama ada ia memberikan kesan yang baik atau buruk. Kajian ini bertujuan untuk mengkaji kesan pengurangan berat badan jangka panjang, ketoksikan dan pengaktifan jalur dopamin ekstrak alkaloid MS pada tikus Wistar jantan dewasa. Dalam kajian anoreksik, tikus dibahagikan kepada 3 kumpulan (n = 10), iaitu kumpulan kawalan yang menerima pemberian intragastrik sekali sehari selama 19 minggu sebagai kawalan (air suling), kumpulan kronik (20 mg/kg MS alkaloid ekstrak) dan kumpulan penarikan (20 mg/kg ekstrak alkaloid MS untuk minggu 1-12 dan air suling untuk minggu 13-19). Berat badan diukur setiap hari dan sampel darah dikumpulkan pada akhir kajian untuk ujian biokimia dan hematologi. Dalam keimunan-histokimia, kesan ekstrak (40 dan 80 mg/kg) pada nukleus akumbens (NAc) dan striatum (STr) ditentukan dengan menggunakan reaktiviti imun mirip-Fos. Dari minggu 2 hingga 19, terdapat penurunan ketara dalam kenaikan berat badan yang dihasilkan oleh ekstrak tersebut. Penghentian rawatan pada minggu ke-12 tidak menyebabkan kenaikan berat badan. Rawatan ekstrak alkaloid MS kronik menurunkan gula darah tanpa puasa, trigliserida, asid urik dan nitrogen urea darah (BUN). Walau bagaimanapun, kenaikan SGOT mungkin menunjukkan kemungkinan kehepatotoksidan. Rawatan ekstrak alkaloid MS kronik juga menghasilkan tahap garis dasar bagi kebanyakan parameter hematologi kecuali penurunan monosit. Dalam keimunan-histokimia, rawatan akut tidak menyebabkan reaktiviti imun mirip-Fos pada NAc dan STr. Data ini menunjukkan kesan yang baik daripada ekstrak alkaloid MS untuk kemungkinan rawatan sindrom metabolik tanpa ketoksikan dan kesan ganjaran.

 

Kata kunci: Anorektik; ketagihan; ketoksikan; kratom; Mitragyna speciose

 

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