Sains Malaysiana 50(3)(2021): 803-819

http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2021-5003-21

 

Health Beneficial Properties of Spirulina in Preventing Non-Communicable Diseases - The Green Metabolic Regulator from the Sea

(Manfaat Kesihatan Spirulina dalam Mencegah Penyakit Tidak Berjangkit - Pengatur Metabolik Hijau dari Laut)

 

SOPHIA OGECHI EKEUKU1, IMA-NIRWANA SOELAIMAN1, KOK-YONG CHIN1,2*

 

1Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Yaacob Latif, Bandar Tun Razak, 56000 Cheras, Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory, Malaysia

 

2State Key Laboratory of Oncogenes and Related Genes, Renji-Med X Clinical Stem Cell Research Center, Department of Urology, Ren Ji Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China

 

Diserahkan 8 April 2020/Diterima: 12 Ogos 2020

 

ABSTRACT

Spirulina is a type of cyanobacteria containing various micro- and macronutrients and has been used as a functional food. Due to its nutritional components, spirulina possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which can potentially prevent non-communicable diseases (NCDs) triggered by inflammation and oxidative stress. This review aims to provide an overview of the effects of spirulina supplementation on NCDs derived from cellular, animals, and human studies. The current literature generally showed that spirulina could protect against NCDs, such as metabolic disorders, osteoporosis, gastric ulcer, hepatic, renal, and neurological disorders. These beneficial effects were mediated through the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of spirulina and seem to be dependent on dose and duration of treatment. Despite the abundance of preclinical studies, human clinical trials validating the effects of spirulina on NCDs are lacking. These preclinical findings warrant a proper clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of spirulina supplementation in protecting human against NCDs.

 

Keywords: Blue-green algae; cyanobacteria; energy metabolism; inflammation; non-communicable diseases; oxidative stress  

ABSTRAK

Spirulina ialah sejenis sianobakteria yang mengandungi pelbagai nutrisi mikro serta makro dan telah digunakan sebagai makanan fungsian. Disebabkan oleh komponen nutrisinya, spirulina mempunyai ciri-ciri antioksidan dan anti-keradangan yang berpotensi untuk mencegah penyakit tidak berjangkit yang diaruh oleh keradangan dan tekanan oksidatif. Ulasan ini bertujuan memberi gambaran tentang kesan suplementasi spirulina ke atas penyakit tidak berjangkit yang diterbitkan daripada kajian sel, haiwan dan manusia. Kajian kepustakaan menunjukkan spirulina boleh mencegah penyakit tidak berjangkit seperti ketidak-normalan metabolik, osteoporosis, ulser gastrik, penyakit hati, ginjal dan neurologi. Manfaat ini dijana melalui kesan antioksidan dan anti-keradangan spirulina. Walaupun terdapat banyak kajian praklinikal, kajian manusia secara klinikal masih tidak mencukupi. Keputusan kajian praklinikal ini perlu disahkan melalui percubaan klinikal yang wajar untuk menguji keberkesanan dan keselamatan supplemen spirulina dalam melindungi manusia daripada penyakit tidak berjangkit. 

 

Kata kunci: Alga biru-hijau; keradangan; metabolisme tenaga; penyakit tidak berjangkit; sianobakteria; tekanan oksidatif

 

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