Sains Malaysiana 50(8)(2021): 2309-2318

http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2021-5008-14

 

Vancomycin Loaded Alginate/Cockle Shell Powder Nanobiocomposite Bone Scaffold for Antibacterial and Drug Release Evaluation

(Perancah Tulang Biokomposit-Nano Alginat/Serbuk Cengkerang Kerang yang Mengandungi Vankomisin untuk Sifat Antibakteria dan Penilaian Pembebasan Dadah)

 

SU WEN YUAN1, JACINTA SANTHANAM1, NG SHIOW FERN2 & B. HEMABARATHY BHARATHAM1*

 

1Biomedical Science Programme, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory, Malaysia

 

2Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Jalan Raja Muda Abdul Aziz, 50300 Kuala Lumpur, Federal Territory, Malaysia

 

Diserahkan: 29 September 2020/Diterima: 12 Disember 2020

 

ABSTRACT

Bacterial infection and biofilm formation is a major concern in orthopaedic implants and bone reconstructive surgery complications that may be addressed with localized drug delivery system. The potential use of a fabricated nanobiocomposite bone scaffold using alginate and nano cockle shell powder for drug release and antibacterial properties was investigated. Vancomycin loaded bone scaffolds were fabricated with 3 and 5 wt% vancomycin, respectively, while a non-drug loaded scaffold was used as controls. The mineralization of the scaffolds using simulated body fluid (SBF) as well as biofilm formation were evaluated using microscopic observations. Drug release study and antimicrobial activity of the eluent from each sampling period was tested for growth inhibition of Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis for a period of 21 days. Significant difference of cumulative amount of vancomycin eluted from scaffolds loaded with 5 wt% vancomycin compared to 3 wt% (p<0.05) were noted. Eluent from both groups showed inhibitory effect against bacterial strain tested for 21 days. The findings are further supported with histological observations of reduced biofilm formation by Staphylococcus epidermidis on surface of 5 wt% vancomycin loaded scaffolds compared to control scaffolds. Basic mineralization studies conducted showed no alteration in drug loaded scaffolds characteristics compared to control scaffolds. Findings from this study indicates antibacterial properties can be conferred to the fabricated bone scaffold with successful incorporation of vancomycin with potentials to be used for local drug delivery application.

Keywords: Antibacterial; bone scaffold; drug elution; nano cockle shell; vancomycin

 

ABSTRAK

Jangkitan bakteria dan pembentukan biofilem merupakan komplikasi utama dalam implantasi ortopedik dan pembedahan pembinaan semula tulang yang boleh ditangani dengan penghantaran dadah secara langsung dan setempat melalui peranti implan. Penyelidikan ini mengkaji pembebasan dadah dan aktiviti antibakteria elusi dadah daripada perancah tulang alginat/serbuk cangkerang kerang yang difabrikasi dengan 3 and 5 % bt. vankomisin. Untuk tujuan perbandingan, perancah tulang tanpa vankomisin difabrikasi sebagai kawalan. Aktiviti mineralisasi perancah dalam larutan simulasi cecair badan (SBF) dan pembentukan biofilem pada permukaan perancah diperhatikan dengan kajian mikroskopi. Kajian pembebasan dadah dijalankan dengan merendamkan perancah tulang dalam larutan SBF sebelum menilai jumlah elusi dadah pada tempoh masa tertentu. Aktiviti antibakteria elusi dadah terhadap Staphylococcus aureus dan Staphylococcus epidermidis telah dikaji melalui pembentukan zon perencatan selama 21 hari. Hasil kajian menunjukkan perbezaan yang signifikan pada jumlah elusi dadah dengan jumlah dadah yang dikesan daripada perancah tulang yang difabrikasi dengan 5 %bt vankomisin lebih tinggi daripada 3 %bt (p<0.0.5). Elusi daripada kedua-dua kumpulan perancah tulang menunjukkan kesan aktiviti antibakteria terhadap kedua-dua strain bakteria selama 21 hari. Hasil ini dibuktikan lagi dengan pemerhatian histologi yang menunjukkan pengurangan pembentukan biofilemStaphylococcus epidermidis pada perancah 5 %bt vankomisin. Pemerhatian SEM juga menunjukkan tiada perubahan terhadap ciri-ciri pembentukan mineral pada permukaan perancah yang difabrikasikan dengan dadah berbanding perancah kumpulan kawalan. Hasil kajian ini menunjukkan perancah tulangalginat/serbuk cangkerang kerang yang difabrikasi dengan vankomisin menunjukkan ciri-ciri antibakteria dan berpotensi untuk dibangunkan dalam aplikasi sistem penghantaran dadah.      

Kata kunci: Antibakteria; nano kulit cengkerang; pembebasan dadah; perancah tulang; vankomisin

 

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