Sains Malaysiana 51(9)(2022): 2763-2774

http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2022-5109-03

 

Growth Performance and Feed Utilization of Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Fed with Diets Containing Animal Protein Source from Expired Sausage

(Prestasi Pertumbuhan dan Penggunaan Makanan oleh Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) Diberi Diet Mengandungi Punca Protein Haiwan daripada Sosej Tamat Tempoh)

 

REN FITRIADI1,*, MUSTIKA PALUPI1 & RISA NURWAHYUNI2

 

1Study Program of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Jenderal Soedirman University, Jl. Dr. Soeparno Street, Karangwangkal, Purwokerto 53122, Central Java, Indonesia

2Program Aquaculture (IMAQUA), Faculty of Bioscience Engineering, Ghent University, Coupure Link 653 9000 Gent, Belgium

 

Diserahkan: 30 Disember 2021/Diterima: 18 April 2022

 

Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of diets with different levels of expired sausage flour as a source of animal protein on the growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). A completely randomized design (CRD) was used with five treatments and three replications. Furthermore, a total of 330 tilapia fish (5-7 cm and 4 ± 1.92 g) were reared in aerated 50 × 30 × 15 cm3 aquaria with a stocking density of 22 fishes per aquarium. The feed contains an equal ratio of plant and animal protein, where the plant protein contains soy flour and rice bran flour in a ratio of 90:10. Meanwhile, the animal protein contains fish flour, added with five sausage flour levels: 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% of the total dietary protein. The levels were then designated as A-D, respectively, while the diet with no sausage flour was used as the control (A). Feed conversion ratio (FCR) protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein retention (PR), energy retention (ER), and protein digestibility (PD) were calculated and compared among treatments. The data were analyzed using a one-way ANOVA on SPSS version 16. The results showed that diet containing 10% sausage flour significantly increased the protein efficiency ratio, protein retention, energy retention, and protein digestibility, and improve feed conversion ratio. Based on the results, 14.07% expired sausage flour protein is recommended as the best concentration for growth performance and food efficiency in tilapia.

 

Keywords: Expired sausage flour; growth; nutrient efficiency; tilapia

 

Abstrak

Matlamat kajian ini adalah untuk menilai prestasi pertumbuhan Tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) yang diberi makan sosej tamat tempoh berbeza tahap sebagai punca makanan protein haiwan. Kajian ini menggunakan reka bentuk rawak lengkap (CRD) dengan lima rawatan dan tiga ulangan. Sebanyak 330 ekor ikan tilapia bersaiz 5-7 cm dan berat 4 ± 1.92 g telah diternak dalam akuarium berudara 50 × 30 × 15 cm3 dengan kepadatan 22 ekor setiap akuarium. Suapan mengandungi protein tumbuhan dan haiwan (50:50), dengan protein tumbuhan terdiri daripada tepung soya dan tepung dedak padi (90:10). Tambahan pula, protein haiwan terdiri daripada tepung ikan yang ditambah dengan serbuk sosej tamat tempoh pada tahap 0, 10, 20, 30 dan 40% daripada jumlah protein pemakanan dan ditetapkan sebagai A-D masing-masing. Diet yang tidak mengandungi tepung sosej dikekalkan sebagai kawalan (A). Selepas itu, data diperoleh daripada pelbagai kumpulan rawatan dan nisbah penukaran makanan (FCR) dihitung untuk menilai prestasi pertumbuhan tilapia. Nisbah kecekapan protein (PER), pengekalan protein (PR), pengekalan tenaga (ER) dan kebolehcernaan protein (PD) juga dikira. Semua data dianalisis menggunakan ANOVA sehala. Pemakanan ikan yang mengandungi 10% protein tepung sosej yang telah tamat tempoh terbukti dapat meningkatkan nisbah kecekapan protein, pengekalan protein, pengekalan tenaga dan kebolehcernaan protein dan juga mengurangkan nisbah penukaran makanan. Khususnya, 14.07% kemasukan protein tepung sosej yang telah tamat tempoh disyorkan untuk prestasi pertumbuhan yang lebih baik dan kecekapan makanan dalam tilapia. Penyelidikan ini telah mencipta model suapan formulasi yang sesuai untuk pertumbuhan ikan tilapia dan telah berjaya mencari kandungan asid amino yang terkandung dalam sisa sosej yang telah tamat tempoh.

 

Kata kunci: Kecekapan nutrisi; pertumbuhan; tepung sosej tamat tempoh, tilapia

 

RUJUKAN

Aaqillah‐Amr, M.A., Hidir, A, Ahmad‐Ideris, A.R., Muhamad‐Zulhilmi, R., Hong Peng, T., Abualreesh, M.H., Noordiyana, M.N., Ma, H. & Ikhwanuddin, M. 2021. The effect of lipid level on the growth and reproductive performance of female orange mud crab, Scylla olivacea (Herbst, 1796), during the fattening period. Aquaculture Nutrition 27(6): 2497-513.

Abdel-Tawwab, M., Ahmad, M.H., Khattab, Y.A.E. & Shalaby, A.M.E. 2010. Effect of dietary protein level, initial body weight, and their interaction on the growth, feed utilization, and physiological alterations of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus(L.). Aquaculture 298(3-4): 267-274.

Abidi, S.F. & Khan, M.A. 2007. Dietary leucine requirement of fingerling Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton). Aquaculture Research 38(5): 478-486.

Agbo, N., Madalla, N. & Jauncey, K. 2011. Effects of dietary cottonseed meal protein levels on growth and feed utilization of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus L. Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management 15(2): 235-239. 

Ali, A. & Al-Asgah, N. 2008. Effect of feeding different protein to energy (P/E) ratios on the growth performance and body composition of Oreochromis niloticus fingerlings. Journal of Applied Ichthyology 24(1): 31-37.

Amin, M., Kumala, R.R., Mukti, A.T., Lamid, M. & Nindarwi, D.D. 2021. Metagenomic profiles of core and signature bacteria in the guts of white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, with different growth rates. Aquaculture 22: 737849.

Anderson, J., Jackson, A.J. & Capper, B.S. 1984. Effects of dietary carbohydrate and fibre on the tilapia Orechromis niloticus (LINN). Aquaculture 37: 303-314.

Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC). 1995. Official Methods of Analysis. Washington: Harvey Washington Wiley. p. 771.

Arief, M., Manan, A. & Pradana, C.A. 2016. The addition of papain on commercial feed to growth rate, feed conversion ratio and survival rate of eel fish (Anguillla bicolor) Stadia Elver. Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan 8(2): 67.

Attalla, R. & Mikhail, S. 2008. Effect of replacement of fish meal protein with boiled full fat soybean seeds and dried algae on growth performance, nutrient utilization and some blood parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Egyptian Journal of Aquatic Biology and Fisheries 12(4): 41-61.

Ayu, F.K., Prasetiawati, Y.M., Santanumirti, M.B., Sari, L.A., Kenconojati, H., Lokapirnasari, W.P. & Lamid, M. 2019. Combination of enzymes papain and phytase on commercial feed toward growth rate, survival rate, feed conversion ratio and feed efficiency of tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus). International Journal of Recent Technology and Engineering 7(6): 564-566.

Buwono, I.D. 2000. Kebutuhan Asam Amino Esensial dalam Ransum Ikan. Yogyakarta: Kanisius. p. 127.

Carneiro, W.F., Pandini, F., da Silva, L.C., dos Santos, L.D., Rossato, K.A. & Meurer, F. 2017. Digestible protein requirement for Nile tilapia fed with rationsn based on soybean meal and corn. Acta Scientiarum Animal Sciences 39(4): 343-349.

Cho, C.Y. & Bureau, D.P. 2001. A review of diet formulation strategies and feeding systems to reduce excretory and feed wastes in aquaculture. Aquaculture Research 32: 349-360.

Dewanggani, A.P., Sari, L.A., Sari, P.D., Nindarwi, D.D. & Arsad, S. 2021. The effect of feed management technology (life and pellet feed) on the maintenance of mutiara catfish (Clarias sp.) in freshwater cultivation. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment Sciences 718(1): 1012017.

Dwiardani, K.H., Sari, L.A., Sari, P.D., Nindarwi, D.D. & Arsad, S. 2020. The effect of feed larvae Chironomus sp. and high pellet protein to seedling goldfish (Carassius auratus). IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environment Sciences 441(1): 012015.

Fitriadi, R., Hasan, V., Palupi, M., Kusuma, B., Soedibya, P.H.T. & Putra, J.J. 2020. The effect of drying expired sausage waste on its nutrition content. Ecology, Environment and Conservation 26(4): 1744-1746.

Ghufron, M., Rahardja, B.S. & Sari, L.A. 2020. The temporal variation of ammonia and nitrite content in extensive ponds with tilapia. AACL Bioflux 13(3): 1328-1335.

Handajani, H. 2006. Pemanfaatan tepung azolla sebagai penyusun pakan ikan terhadap pertumbuhan dan daya cerna ikan nila gift (Oreochromis sp). Research Report 1: 162- 170.

Hasan, M.R. & Soto, D. 2017. Improving Feed Conversion Ratio and its Impact on Reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Aquaculture. Rome: FAO. p. 13.

Hernández, C., Olvera-Novoa, M.A., Voltolina, D., Hardy, R.W., González-Rodriguez, B., Dominguez-Jimenez, P. & Agramon-Romero, S. 2013. Use of tuna industry waste in diets for Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, fingerlings: Effect on digestibility and growth performance. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research 41(3): 468-478.

Jackson, A.J., Capper, B.S. & Matty, A.J. 1982. Evaluation of some plant proteins in complete diets for the tilapia Surotherodon mossumbicus. Aquaculture 27: 97-109.

Jauncey, K. 1982. The effects of varying dietary protein level on the growth, food conversion, protein utilization and body composition of juvenile tilapia (Surotherodon mossumbicus). Aquaculture 27(1): 43-54.

Karlina, H.P., Cahyoko, Y. & Agustono. 2013. Fermentation of coconut dregs using Trichoderma viride, Bacillus subtilis, and em4 against crude protein and crude fiber as an alternative feed ingredients for fish. Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan 5(1): 77-83.

Kashyap, S., Schulze, K.F., Fors, M., Zucker, C., Dell, R.B., Ramakrishnan, R. & Heird, W.C. 1988. Growth, nutrient retention, and metabolic response in low birth weight infants fed varying intakes of protein and energy. The Journal of Pediatrics 113(4): 713-721. https://doi.org/https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-3476(88)80388-3.

KKP. 2018. Data Statistik Produksi Perikanan Satu Data Kementrian Kelautan dan Perikanan. Indonesia: Kementerian Kelautan dan Perikanan.

Kusuma, P.S., Hariani, D. & Mukti, A.T. 2021. Evaluation of probiotic-fermented feed addition and laser-firing to accelerate mature broodstocks and seed productions of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 22(2): 1-9.

Loekman, M.A., Satyantini, W.H. & Mukti, A.T. 2018. Addition of amino taurine acid to artificial feed on increased growth and survival rate of cantik grouper seed (Epinephelus fuscoguttatus × Epinephelus microdon). Jurnal Ilmiah Perikanan dan Kelautan 10(2): 112-118.

Minggawati, I. 2006. Pengaruh padat tebar yang berbed