Sains Malaysiana 51(9)(2022): 2789-2802

http://doi.org/10.17576/jsm-2022-5109-05

 

Isolation and Characterisation of Plant Growth-Promoting Bacterial and Fungal Endophytes from Himalayan Yew (Taxus wallichiana) - An Economically Imperative Pant of Himalayas

(Pemencilan dan Pencirian Bakteria dan Kulat Endofit Penggalak-Pertumbuhan Tanaman daripada Himalayan Yew (Taxus wallichiana)-Tumbuhan Himalaya yang Penting daripada Segi Ekonomi)

 

SOFIA SHARIEF KHAN, VIJESHWAR VERMA & SHAFAQ RASOOL*

 

Faculty of Sciences, School of Biotechnology, Faculty of Sciences, Shri Mata Vaishno Devi University, Kakryal, Katra, Jammu and Kashmir 182320, India

 

Diserahkan: 29 Ogos 2021/Diterima: 28 Mac 2022

 

Abstract

It is a known fact that the bacterial and fungal endophytes inhabit the plant tissues besides aiding in the better growth and health of the plants. The bark and leaves of Taxus wallichiana have drawn a lot of interest in recent years since they are the richest source of taxol, an anticancer drug. As it is a slow-growing tree that can only be regenerated via vegetative propagation, it has been classified as a critical rare species due to its extensive collection for medicinal and other purposes. Nonetheless, the use of endophytes as plant growth promoters is gaining much importance among environmentalists and agronomists because of their imperative role in crop production. Even then, there is hardly any information available regarding the growth-promoting endophytes isolated from bark and leaves associated with T. wallichiana commonly known as Himalayan Yew. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to isolate fungal and bacterial endophytes from T. wallichiana and to classify the growth-promoting properties of these endophytes. In total, seven fungal and ten bacterial endophytes were obtained from different parts of T. wallichiana. All of the isolated fungal and bacterial endophytes produced indole acetic acid while most of them also produced ammonia. Besides, the fungal and bacterial endophytes were also screened for antimicrobial and various enzymatic activities. Based on the above results, the two fungal endophytes were selected for their possible ability to promote seed growth. The results showed that the fungal endophytes isolated from T. wallichiana played an active role in increasing growth in other plant species and therefore, can be used as potential plant growth promoters.

 

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity; bacterial endophytes; fungal endophytes; plant growth-promoting endophytes (PGPE)

 

Abstrak

Adalah diketahui bahawa bakteria dan kulat endofit mendiami tisu tumbuhan serta membantu dalam tumbesaran dan kesihatan tumbuhan yang lebih baik. Kulit dan daun Taxus wallichiana telah menarik minat ramai sejak beberapa tahun kebelakangan ini kerana ia kaya dengantaxol, iaitu ubat antikanser. Memandangkan ia adalah pokok dengan tumbesaran yang perlahan dan hanya boleh dijana semula melalui pembiakan vegetatif, ia telah dikelaskan sebagai spesies langka yang kritikal kerana pengumpulannya dilakukan secara ekstensif untuk tujuan perubatan. Namun begitu, penggunaan endofit sebagai penggalak tumbesaran tumbuhan semakin penting dalam kalangan ahli alam sekitar dan ahli agronomi kerana peranan pentingnya dalam pengeluaran tanaman. Walaupun begitu, hampir tidak terdapat sebarang maklumat mengenai endofit penggalak tumbesaran yang diasingkan daripada kulit kayu dan daun yang dikaitkan dengan T. wallichiana yang juga dikenali sebagai Himalaya Yew. Oleh yang demikian, kajian ini telah dijalankan untuk mengasingkan endofit kulat dan bakteria daripada T. wallichiana dan pada masa yang sama, untuk mengelaskan sifat penggalak tumbesaran tanaman oleh endofit ini. Secara keseluruhan, tujuh kulat dan sepuluh bakteria endofit diperoleh daripada bahagian T. wallichiana yang berlainan. Kesemua kulat dan bakteria endofit yang dipencilkan menghasilkan asid asetik indol manakala kebanyakannya juga menghasilkan ammonia. Selain itu, kulat dan bakteria endofit juga disaring untuk aktiviti antimikrob dan pelbagai enzim. Berdasarkan hasil di atas, dua endofit kulat telah dipilih kerana keupayaan mereka dalam menggalakkan tumbesaran benih. Hasil menunjukkan bahawa kulat endofit yang diasingkan daripada T. wallichiana memainkan peranan aktif dalam meningkatkan tumbesaran spesies tumbuhan lain dan berpotensi untuk digunakan sebagai penggalak tumbesaran tumbuhan.

 

Kata kunci: Aktiviti antimikrob; bakteria endofit; endofit penggalak tumbesaran tumbuhan (PGPE); kulat endofit

 

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