Sains Malaysiana 44(8)(2015): 1103–1110


Identification of Indigenous Bacteria Isolated from Shrimp Aquaculture Wastewater with Bioremediation Application: Total Ammoniacal Nitrogen (TAN) and Nitrite Removal

(Pengenalpastian Bakteria Asli Dipencilkan daripada Air Sisa Udang Akuakultur dengan Aplikasi BioPemulihan: Jumlah Amonia Nitrogen (TAN) dan Penyingkiran Nitrit)





1Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur



2Mushroom Research Centre, Institute Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya

50603 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


3Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences (IOES), University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur



Received: 10 August 2014/Accepted: 24 March 2015



Deterioration of water quality mainly due to high total ammonia nitrogen (TAN) and nitrite will affect the productivity of shrimp culture. In this study, three indigenous strains assigned as VCM5, VCM8 and VCM12 were evaluated for their ability to degrade TAN and nitrite. These strains were inoculated into shrimp aquaculture wastewater to enhance the degradation of TAN and nitrite. All the strains reduced TAN and nitrite level from the shrimp aquaculture wastewater significantly (p<0.05). Strain VCM5 (GenBank accession number KJ700465) and VCM8 (GenBank accession number KJ700464) showed 99.71% sequence similarity with the 16S rRNA gene type species Bacillus vietnamensis 15-1T (ABO99708) and strain VCM12 (GenBank accession number KJ700463) showed 99.05% sequence similarity with 16S rRNA gene sequence type species Gordonia bronchialis DSM43247T (CP001802).


Keywords: Bioremediation; shrimp; total ammonia nitrogen



Kemerosotan kualiti air terutamanya disebabkan oleh jumlah nitrogen amonia yang tinggi (TAN) dan nitrit akan menjejaskan produktiviti kultur udang. Dalam kajian ini, tiga strain asli dikenali sebagai VCM5, VCM8 dan VCM12 telah dinilai keupayaannya untuk mendegradasi TAN dan nitrit. Strain ini telah diinokulasi ke dalam air sisa udang akuakultur untuk meningkatkan degradasi TAN dan nitrit. Semua strain menurunkan tahap TAN dan nitrit daripada air sisa akuakultur udang dengan ketara (p<0.05). Strain VCM5 (nombor penerimaan GenBank KJ700465) dan VCM8 (nombor penerimaan GenBank KJ700464) menunjukkan 99.71% persamaan jujukan dengan spesies jenis gen 16 rRNA Bacillus vietnamensis 15-1T (ABO99708) dan strain VCM12 (nombor penerimaan GenBank KJ700463) menunjukkan persamaan jujukan 99.05% dengan16 rRNA spesies jenis jujukan gen Gordonia bronchialis DSM43247 T (CP001802).


Kata kunci: Biopemulihan; jumlah nitrogen amonia; udang


Chen, K., Yang, J. & Zhao, H. 2013. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus strain for alkaline wastewater treatment. African Journal of Microbiology Research 7: 5119-5125.

Chen, J., Zhan, P., Koopman, B., Fang, G. & Shi, Y. 2012. Bioaugmentation with Gordonia strain JW8 in treatment of pulp and paper wastewater. Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy 14: 899-904.

Cyplik, P., Grajek, W., Marecik, R., Kroliczak, P. & Dembczynski, R. 2007. Application of membrane bioreactor to denitrification of brine. Desalination 207: 134-143.

El Fantroussi, S. & Agathos, S.N. 2005. Is bioaugmentation a feasible strategy for pollutant removal and site remediation? Current Opinion in Microbiology 8: 268-275.

Foglar, L., Briŝki, F., Sipos, L. & Vuković, M. 2005. High nitrate removal from synthetic wastewater with the mixed bacterial culture. Bioresource Technology 96: 879-888.

Gentry, T.G., Rensing, C. & Pepper, I.L. 2004. New approaches for bioaugmentation as a remediation technology. Critical Reviews on Environmental Sciences and Technology 34: 447-494.

Hammer, M.J. & Hammer, M.J.J. 2008. Water and Wastewater Technology. New Jersey: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Harms, G., Layton, A.C., Dionisi, H.M., Gregory, I.R., Garrett, V.M., Hawkins, S.A., Robinson, K.G. & Sayler, G.S. 2003. Real time PCR quantification of nitrifying bacteria in a municipal wastewater treatment plant. Environmental Science and Technology 37: 343-351.

Iwabuchi, T., Yamauchi, Y.I., Katsuta, A. & Harayama, S. 1998. Isolation and characterization of marine Nocardioides capable of growing and degrading phenanthrene at 42°C. Journal of Marine Biotechnology 6: 86-90.

Kāmpfer, P., Martin, K. & Dott, W. 2012. Gordonia phosphorivorans sp. nov., isolated from a wastewater bioreactor with phosphorus removal. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 63: 230-235.

Kim, J.K., Park, K.J., Cho, K.S., Nam, S.W., Park, T.J. & Bajpai, R. 2005. Aerobic nitrification-denitrification by heterotrophic Bacillus strains. Bioresource Technology 96: 1897-1906.

Kim, O.S., Cho, Y.J., Lee, K., Yoon, S.H., Kim, M., Na, H., Park, S.C., Jeon, Y.S., Lee, J.H., Yi, H., Won, S. & Chun, J. 2012. Introducing EzTaxon-e: A prokaryotic 16S rRNA Gene sequence database with phylotypes that represent uncultured species. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology 62: 716-721.

Koser, S.A. 1923. Utilization of the salts and organic acids by the colon-aerogenes group. Journal of Bacteriology 8: 493-520.

Lin, C.K. 1995. Progression of intensive marine shrimp culture in Thailand. In Swimming through Troubled Water. Proceedings of the Special Session on Shrimp Farming, Aquaculture ‘95, edited by Browdy, C.L. & Hopkins, J.S. Baton Rouge: World Aquaculture Society. pp. 13-23.

Morita, M., Uemoto, H. & Watanabe, A. 2008. Nitrogen-removal bioreactor capable of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification for application to industrial wastewater treatment. Biochemical Engineering Journal 41: 59-66.

Paredes, D., Kuschk, P., Mbwette, T., Stange, F., Müller, R. & Köser, H. 2007. New aspects of microbial nitrogen transformations in the context of wastewater treatment - A review. Engineering in Life Sciences 7(1): 13-25.

Peng, Y. & Zhu, G. 2006. Biological nitrogen removal with nitrification and denitrification via nitrite pathway. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 73(1): 15-26.

Piehler, J., Brecht, A., Hehl, K. & Gauglitz, G. 1999. Protein interactions in covalently attached dextran layers. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces 13: 325-336.

Quan, X.C., Shi, H.C., Wang, J.L. & Qian, Y. 2003. Effects of phenol presence on the biodegradation of 2,4-dichlorophenol in a bioaugmentation system. Huan Jing Ke Xue 24: 75-79.

Shan, H. & Obbard, J.P. 2001. Ammonia removal from prawn aquaculture water using immobilized nitrifying bacteria. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 57(5-6): 791-798.

Tamura, K., Dudley, J., Nei, M. & Kumar, S. 2007. MEGA4: Molecular evolutionary genetic analysis (MEGA) software version 4.0. Molecular Biology and Evolution 24: 1596-1599.

Yang, X.P., Wang, S.M., Zhang, D.W. & Zhou, L.X. 2011. Bioresource technology isolation and nitrogen removal characteristics of an aerobic heterotrophic nitrifying - denitrifying bacterium, Bacillus subtilis A1. Bioresource Technology 102(2): 854-862.


*Corresponding author; email: